Mount Wutai - the fourth of the four famous mountains of Chinese Buddhism
Mount Wutai, located in the northeast of Shanxi Province, is at the northern end of the Taihang Mountains. Wutai County, Fanshi County, Dai County, Yuanping County and Dingxiang County across Xinzhou District cover more than 500 kilometers in a week. The central area is Taihuai Town, 90 kilometers from Wutai County, 160 kilometers from Xinzhou City, and 240 kilometers from Taiyuan City, the capital of Shanxi Province.
Mount Wutai is one of the earliest land on the earth. Its breeding can be traced back to 2.6 billion years ago in the Archaean era. In the Sinian period, it also experienced the famous "Wutai Uplift" movement, forming the most magnificent mountains in North China. During the Quaternary period, glaciers covered Mount Wutai, leaving precious periglacial landforms. The Wutai Mountain strata are complete and rich. In particular, the Precambrian strata, with typical development, have become the key areas for research and comparison across the country. Most of the stratigraphic formations in Wutai Mountain are named after the mountains, waters, villages and towns in the region, which fully shows their role in the geological position.
Mount Wutai is the highest peak in North China, with the lowest elevation of only 624 meters and the highest elevation of 3061 meters. The nature has created many unique landscapes for cockroaches and crisscross peaks and ridges.
Qifeng Lingya is everywhere, and there are more than 50 famous people. After sprinkling the writing cliff with water, wipe it carefully with a handkerchief, and the cliff surface will show handwriting similar to seal script and official script, and the water dry character is hidden. Someone has removed the cuticle layer, but the words can still be erased from the lower layer. There are different characters. It is reported that he once found the joint sentence of "the three treasures of the sky, the sun, the moon and the stars, the three treasures of the earth, the water, fire and wind, and the three treasures of the human essence, qi and spirit".
Clear springs and green pools are inlaid with mountains. There are more than 20 places that have been praised as having aura in history. Among them, Yueyu Grottoes is located on the cliff, with a diameter of about feet. Every year around the Tomb Sweeping Day, there are fish crowding out of the cave with the flowing water, even breaking their bodies and exposing their gills, until May and June. The big fish is more than jin, and the small tail is two. Most of them are carp and crucian carp, which are very delicious. Zhang Shen of the Qing Dynasty described it as "no hawks and cranes are allowed to cross the river, but whales and carp are coming. The wind may break the wall, and the water may cause thunder".
There are more than thirty wonderful stones in the Buddha Cave. Among them, cow heart stone is like cow liver. It is said that the ox demon king returns to Buddhism and cultivates good fruit. His wife, Luo Cha, is in love with her, so she is here to catch up. The ox demon king committed suicide by caesarean section to clarify his mind. Later, it will be turned into this stone, which can cure heart disease after being scraped and eaten. Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty toured Mount Wutai, and Cong subjects competed for chiseling. Emperor Kangxi wrote the word "time", which means that although the stone is big, the time is ruthless, arbitrary chiseling will inevitably destroy the scenic spots.
Qingliang Mountain Annals describes Mount Wutai as follows: "The cool mountain is the character of the Great Man Manjusri." According to the Yan Dynasty, it is a vast number of states in the four passes, with a circumference of more than 500 miles. It is adjacent to Hengyue on the left, showing thousands of peaks; it is overlooking Hutuo and Changliu on the right; it is the purple fortress in the north, which suppresses thousands of miles of smoke and dust; it is surrounded by the Central Plains in the south, which is the shield of a large country. The situation of the mountain is inexplicable. The five peaks are neutral, with thousands of obstacles open. The winding is graceful, and the long stream is locked. The green and blue mountains are folded, and the mountains are heavy. It is towering and thick, There is nothing like him, so he looks like a man. In the meantime, the spring resounds and thousands of gullies fly. Jiamu is dense, and thousands of mountains are spreading. It is a mysterious thing, storing and releasing clouds and dragons. It is no more than the abode of Brahman. The hidden ring is full of real people's houses. Although the cold wind is strong, the auspicious grass competes for fragrance. Snow flies in summer, and famous flowers compete. White clouds clot in the Chengjiang River. The sun will rise to see the sea. This is the usual situation. " The beautiful scenery of Mount Wutai can be said to be passed down through the ages.
The most wonderful natural landscape of Mount Wutai is that the "round light" reflects the shadow of tourists. The general rainbow, which is arc-shaped, usually occurs after rainfall. If it doesn't rain in Wutai Mountain, there will also be a rainbow in a circle. Sometimes the circle can reach two circles inside and outside. What is more strange is that in the colorful circle, there will be various landscapes, such as birds, animals, halls, Buddha statues, and even observers themselves. This natural landscape, which is a combination of physical, geographical, meteorological and other conditions, is magnificent and mysterious, and has always been regarded by religious circles as "the treasure of the mountain".
There are more than 600 plant species in Wutai Mountain. Among them, there are nearly 400 kinds of high-quality forage grass, forming a unique natural pasture, leading to the "June Mule and Horse Conference" with a long history. There are more than 200 flowering plants with ornamental value. In the Tang Dynasty, Wu Zetian visited her family and heard that the Buddha's flowers were different. She transplanted many precious flowers and plants from Mount Wutai and planted them in the imperial garden. There are more than 150 kinds of medicinal plants, among which Taishen, Huangmao, Huangling and other medicinal materials are of high quality and famous at home and abroad. Mushroom, a fungus plant, is both a precious medicine and a delicacy. It has been honored as a tribute in history, and today it has become a good gift for relatives and friends. Climbing Mount Wutai in summer and autumn, the flowers are in full bloom. In the ancient cave in the shadow of the mountains, you can also enjoy "thousands of years of ice" and "thousands of years of snow", which can be described as "playing cool and refreshing, four seasons of wind and snow flying, and the world of silver; grand bliss, the lotus flower opens in June, turning into the golden universe".
Wutai Mountain, the first known as Wufeng Mountain, means that five main peaks are suddenly pulled up in the mountains. After the popularity of religious activities in the mountains, it was found that "the five peaks rose without trees on the top, like a platform built on earth". According to the development and evolution of "Taiwan" in Chinese history, it was renamed Wutai Mountain. In addition, Mount Wutai also has other aliases such as Qingliang Mountain, Zifu Mountain, Yuanguang Mountain, Baiyun Mountain, Yanmen Mountain, Lingjiu Mountain, Wuding Mountain, Wulong Mountain, etc. According to historical facts, classics and legends, it is full of interest.
The five main peaks of Mount Wutai are named after the five directions. They are called Dongtai, Beitai, Xitai, Nantai and Zhongtai respectively. The five platforms have fingers, and the east platform looks at the sea peak and the west platform hangs on the moon peak are always the same. The other three have changed in history. Beitai was originally designated as Dahuang Jianshan and later changed to Ye Doufeng; In the middle stage, it was first set as Ye Doufeng and later changed to Cuiyan Peak; Nantai was first designated as Cuiyan Peak, then changed to Gunantai, and finally was designated as Jinxiu Peak. The change of Wutai refers to the religious activities in history. It is an objective reflection of the development from north to south.
There are five main peaks of Mount Wutai today. The east, north, west and middle are a series of mountains, and the south is an independent peak. The mountain rocks are mainly composed of gneiss, marble and quartzite, with high strength and are not easy to denude. The formation of a gentle mountaintop, landing aircraft; The valley is deep and U-shaped. The five terraces have their own landscapes. In the east, there are Liyue fire beads, in the north, there are Yujian agar, in the west, there are Linong Yaoshi, in the south, there are Dongguang bead trees, and in the middle, there are self-bright gold and the wall of ring light. Yuan Haowen, a poet of a generation, exclaimed: "This scene should only be in the sky. How could you know that you are at the wonderful peak?".
The famous Haifeng in Dongtai, with an altitude of 2795 meters, is like a ridge at the top, and the Wanghai Temple is built around the three miles. Standing on the platform, you can see that the clouds and mist are diffused in the mountains, revealing the peaks. The scene is like a floating boat on the sea. The sea of clouds is sometimes calm and soft as silk; Sometimes it billows up and down, and clouds billow. The peaks of the cloud sea appear and disappear from time to time, as if floating in the waves. When you climb to the top and watch the sunrise, you can see a red sun leaping out of the sea of clouds. The sea and sky are red, like red damask, which is spectacular.
Nantai is known as the Splendid Peak, with an altitude of 2485 meters. If the top is covered with a bowl, there is a Puji Temple built around Monday. "Cool Mountain Annals" said: "The mountain peaks are steep, the smoke is light and green, the grass is mixed with flowers, and the mountains are covered, and the brocade is still spread, so it is named."
Xitai is named Hangyue Peak, with an altitude of 2773 meters and a flat and wide top. On Tuesday, there was a Farei Temple. When the bright moon sets in the west, it looks like a hanging mirror.
Beitai is known as Yedou Peak, with an altitude of 300058 meters. It is the "first peak in North China". Its top is flat and wide. On Thursday, there was a Lingying Temple. There is a folk saying that "lie on the top of the north platform and touch the stars". According to the Qingliang Mountain Annals, "It looks up at the bottom and touches the dipper on the top, so it is named. The wind, clouds and thunderstorms come from the half of the mountain. Sometimes there is a shower below, and it is sunny on the top... Sometimes there is a fierce wind and thunder, which is terrifying. There is a strong wind, which blows people into the stream, like withered leaves. Look at the sea air in the east and the desert in the north."
The middle platform is called Cuiyan Peak, with an altitude of 2894 meters and a flat and wide top. On Friday, there is a performance temple. The peak is connected with the north and west platforms, overlooking Jinyang Plain in the south and Yanmen Pass in the north. The peaks are majestic and the green mist is floating in the sky, so it is named Cuiyan Peak.
Mount Wutai is a famous Buddhist holy land at home and abroad. It is known as the four famous Buddhist mountains in China, together with Mount Emei in Sichuan, Mount Jiuhua in Anhui and Mount Putuo in Zhejiang. Mount Wutai, with its long history and large scale, ranks first among the four famous Buddhist mountains. From ancient times to modern times, emperors worshipped the building, eminent monks acted well, and countless Chinese and foreign Buddhist believers and tourists came in droves to worship the Buddha and visit the mountains.
The five peaks are towering, the tops are flat and wide, and the thousands of peaks are open in a ring. They are graceful and graceful, and Buddhism regards them as the spiritual district of Foshan. The Mahayana Sutra says: "There is a place in the northeast, named Qingliang Mountain. Since the past, all the Bodhisattvas have stopped in it. The existing Bodhisattvas, named Manjusri Shili, and their relatives, all the Bodhisattvas, are 10000 people. They often speak in it." "The Buddha told Vajra that the main message was: 'After I perished, there was the name of the country, Da Zhenna, in the northeast of the former Fubu Island, including the mountains and the five peaks of the sun. Manjushri children, who marched and lived for all sentient beings, said in the middle." Da Zhenna, or the kingdom of Sindan, both refer to China. Manjusri Shili, or Manjusri Shili, is a transliteration of Sanskrit, one of the Mahayana Bodhisattvas of Buddhism, sometimes referred to as Manjusri, sometimes referred to as Manjusri Boy, all of which refer to various adaptations. In the Huayan Sutra, Manjusri Bodhisattva and Samantabhadra Bodhisattva are both regarded as the threatening servants of Sakyamuni Buddha. Manjusri Bodhisattva is on the left, and his statues mostly ride lions. General Buddhist scriptures record that Mount Wutai is the place where Manjusri Bodhisattva performs his teachings.
Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism, was born in the ancient Indian state of Kapila Wei (present Nepal) from the seventh to sixth century BC. Sakyamuni's surname is Jotama and his name is Siddhartha. After becoming a Buddha, Sakyamuni is called Buddha, which means the enlightened. Because his family is Sakyamuni, he is generally called Sakyamuni, which means the sage of Sakyamuni. Sakyamuni was a prince. He once married and had children, and later became a monk. After becoming a Taoist priest, he traveled all over ancient India to publicize his teachings. His disciples also increased. According to the scriptures, the Buddha said that there is a mountain in the northeast called Wuding. The left flank of Sakyamuni Buddha, the Manjusri Bodhisattva who specializes in "wisdom", said in the middle. Therefore, Wutai Mountain, as a Buddhist holy land, is also famous at home and abroad.
At what time did Mount Wutai begin to build temples? According to many ancient books, there were temple buildings in Mount Wutai during the Yongping period of the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is said that Liu Zhuang, the Ming Emperor of the Han Dynasty, dreamed that the golden man was sitting on the auspicious cloud and floating from the western sky. Knowing that there was a Buddha's feeling, he immediately sent ministers such as Cai An and Qin Jing to visit the west to worship the Buddha. Cai, Qin and others got the Buddhist scriptures and statues in Dayue, and happened to meet Gao Zengcheng Moten and Zhufran of Tianzhu (now India), who were preaching in the local area, and invited them to China. In the tenth year of Yongping (AD 67), Buddhist monks and Han envoys arrived in Luoyang with scriptures and Buddha statues on white horses. When Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty saw the Buddha of Sakyamuni, as he had seen in his dream, he believed in Buddhism more and more, so he ordered the construction of the White Horse Temple in Luoyang, and took pictures of Motem and Zhu Flange to spread Buddhism in China. In the eleventh year of Yongping, the two eminent monks came to Wutai Mountain, a cool holy land, and saw the inner platform surrounded by five platform tops. Its mountain shape and landform were indistinguishable from that of Shakyamuni Buddha's practice site, Lingjiu Mountain. After returning to Luoyang, they asked Emperor Ming of Han Dynasty to build a temple on Wutai Mountain. Therefore, Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty issued an order to build Dafu Lingzhao Temple on Mount Wutai. Dafu means Hongxin. The temple is called Lingjiu, which means that the hinterland of Wutai Mountain in the eastern region is similar to Lingjiu Mountain in the western region. In this way, Luoyang White Horse Temple and Dafu Lingjiu Temple in Wutai Mountain became the earliest temples in China. Dafu Lingzhao Temple is the predecessor of Xiantong Temple.
Historically, with the spread of Buddhism, the worship of emperors, and the good deeds of eminent monks, Mount Wutai has become more and more famous as the Manjusri Bodhisattva ashram, and its status has become higher and higher. There are more and more temple buildings, and the scale is becoming larger and larger. There were also ups and downs of Buddhism, and the situation was different in different periods. Since the time of Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty, when he took pictures of Moten and Zhufang to promote Buddhism and built the Dafu Lingjiu Temple, more than 200 temples have been built in Wutai Mountain during the Northern and Southern Dynasties. The destruction of temples in Wutai Mountain and other places is very serious. In the early Sui Dynasty, temples were rebuilt again, and Buddhism revived. In the Tang Dynasty, when Buddhism flourished, there were more than 360 temples in Mount Wutai. The Emperor Wuzong of the Tang Dynasty would destroy the Dharma, and the Buddhism of Mount Wutai fell into the middle, and the number of temples decreased. In the Song, Liao, Jin and Yuan dynasties, although they were built repeatedly, they were not fully recovered due to the destruction of war. In the Ming Dynasty, Buddhism revived, and more than 100 temples, monasteries and nunneries were rebuilt and built in Mount Wutai. Since the Qing Dynasty, with the introduction of Lamaism to Mount Wutai, some Qing temples have been changed to Huang temples, and new Huang temples have been built. The two temples have their own characteristics, and the monks of Han, Tibetan, Mongolian and Manchu nationalities live in harmony. Since the founding of New China. The Party and the state have correctly implemented religious policies, attached great importance to the protection of cultural relics, and have allocated a large amount of funds to repair and renovate temples. Monks also use temples to maintain temples, and use alms to supplement the statues. Rebuild the halls and tidy the temples. "When you pick up a stalk of grass casually, it is always a golden lion". Mount Wutai has made great contributions to the development of Chinese Buddhism.
Mount Wutai was the center of studying the Huayan Sutra in the northern region during the Gaoqi period. Chengguan, an eminent monk in the Tang Dynasty, developed the Huayan character to its peak. He was once the teacher of the seven emperors, and was granted the title of "Professor Monk", "Cool National Teacher" and so on. He was honored as the fourth ancestor of Huayan Sect. The real prosperity of Huayan Sect was in the Chengguan period. According to Manjusri Bodhisattva in the Huayan Sutra, the ashram is in the Qingliang Mountain in the northeast. Mount Wutai is not only in the northeast of Chang'an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty, but also in the northeast of ancient India, the birthplace of Buddhism. The climate in the mountain is covered with ice every year, and it still snows in summer, and there was no heat, which is consistent with what is said in the Huayan Sutra. For all these reasons, Mount Wutai Buddhism invited Manjusri to settle in the east, renamed Mount Wutai as Qingliang Mountain, and respected as the ashram where the Manjusri Bodhisattva carried his family members, marched and lived, and taught. After that, a detailed study of Manjusri Bodhisattva was carried out, making the image of Manjusri Bodhisattva continuously tall and plump, and finally rising to "the teacher of the seven Buddhas" and "the mother of the three Buddhas". Wutai Mountain has become the most worshipped Buddhist god by Buddhist believers of all nationalities, and is also honored as the "golden world" and "cool and clean place". On the basis of learning and inheriting ancient Indian Buddhism, Mount Wutai Buddhism, according to China's national conditions, created a different belief in Bodhisattva from ancient Indian Buddhism, and achieved a high degree of harmony and unity from the combination of Buddhist theory and Buddhist practice. It has played a typical exemplary role in the final formation of the four famous mountains. In the development history of Chinese Buddhism, it has great influence.
Located at the foot of the Great Wall and at the junction of the farming and nomadic peoples in history, Mount Wutai has always been highly valued by the feudal royal family. Since Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty established a summer resort in the mountains, Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty, Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty, Emperor Yingzong of the Yuan Dynasty, Emperor Shengzong of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of the Qing Dynasty, and others have all traveled to Mount Wutai. As for the emperors and empresses of the past dynasties who sent envoys to the Wutai Mountain, they were even more numerous. When you open the history books of the major temples in Mount Wutai, the word "imperial construction" is always written on the first page. Senior officials and dignitaries followed suit. Writers and writers, brush and express their feelings. The Buddhism often meets the Longmen people, and the Zen forest gathers the Hanlin people, which is the true portrayal of the history of Mount Wutai. Because of this, Mount Wutai Buddhism, with its special position and effect in the history of Chinese thought, has always played a vital role in the issue of national unity and integration in the northern region. If the Great Wall is the product of national confrontation, Mount Wutai Buddhism is the symbol of national integration.
Mount Wutai has always been a place where famous monks gather. Huiyuan, an eminent monk in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, was born in Yuanping County, at the eastern foot of Mount Wutai. Tanluan, Lingbian, Lingxiu, Facong and Jiafu in the Northern Wei Dynasty; Liu Qianzhi in the Northern Qi Dynasty; Huilong and liberation in Sui Dynasty; Daoxuan, Jianji, Huixiang, Chengguan, Fazhao and Jianzhen in the Tang Dynasty; Wisdom, enlightenment, and kindness in the Song Dynasty; Sutuo Shili, Huihong and Fachong in the Jin Dynasty; In the Yuan Dynasty, Basiba, Danba, Zhenjue, Liaoxing, Hongjiao, and Haiyun were the great masters; In the Ming Dynasty, the Great Treasure Dharma King, Miaofeng, Hanshan, Zibai, Zhencheng, Shida Yeshi, Ruxin, and so on. These famous masters in the history of Chinese Buddhism, either born locally, or lived in the mountains for many years, or practiced the mountain temple for life, have made outstanding contributions to the construction of Mount Wutai Buddhism, and even played a huge role in the development of Chinese Buddhism.
The prominent position of Mount Wutai in Chinese Buddhism has attracted many foreign Buddhist believers. During the prosperous Tang Dynasty, Mount Wutai became an institution of higher learning for foreign believers to study and listen to scriptures. After the Tang Dynasty, foreign eminent monks continued to pay homage to Mount Wutai. With its vigorous vitality, Mount Wutai Buddhism has been spreading its influence. During the reign of Zhenguan in the Tang Dynasty, Cizang, an eminent monk in the kingdom of Silla, came to Mount Wutai to learn. After returning to China, Mount Wutai was opened on the Korean Peninsula. Centered on the Zhenru Academy in Central Taiwan, it actively publicized the Manjusri faith and made the Manjusri faith in Mount Wutai in China blossom and bear fruit on the Korean peninsula. The country of Japan has been influenced by Mount Wutai Buddhism since Nara's time. Emperor Saiwu, following the sacred act of Empress Wu Zetian of China, also hung the plaque of the Great Huayan Temple on the south gate of the Great East Temple of Japan. The famous monk of Japan, Yuanren, has a detailed description of Mount Wutai Buddhism in his book "The Journey to the Tang Dynasty to Seek Dharma", which has a great influence in Japan. During the reign of Taiping and rejuvenating the country in the Song Dynasty of China, eminent monks from the Dongda Temple in the south of Japan came to China to worship Mount Wutai. After returning to China, it is planned to rename Aiyan Mountain as Wutai Mountain, and create the National University of Japan's Qingliang Temple, modeled on the oldest Daqingliang Temple in Wutai Mountain in China. It's a pity that when great wishes come, people will die first. His disciples asked the imperial court for permission to change the original Sakyamuni Hall in Qixia Temple to Qingliang Temple, which later became a famous temple integrating the world's beliefs. The ancient temple of Mount Wutai in China was moved to Japan. It can be said that the belief in Mount Wutai has spread to East Asia. Today, Mount Wutai Buddhism attracts a large number of Southeast Asian believers, and there is an endless stream of pilgrims to the mountain every year.
The Buddhist sects of Mount Wutai can be divided into two major systems: Qingjiao and Huangjiao. Qingjiao is the general name of Han Buddhism. There have been Faxiang Sect, Lv Sect, Tiantai Sect, Huayan Sect, Pure Land Sect, Tantra Sect, Zen Sect and its subordinate Linji Sect, Linjicha Sect, Caodong Sect, etc. In history, the monks of Xiantong Temple believed that the temple was founded in the hands of Motemflan, so they called the sect Motemflan. Its doctrine is the blending of Zen and Pure Land, and the era should not be earlier than the Ming Dynasty. Huangjiao is the general name of Tibetan Buddhism. The introduction of Wutai Mountain has been said in the Tang Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty, and reached the peak in the Qing Dynasty. In the early Qing Dynasty, the imperial court changed the ten green temples on Mount Wutai into yellow temples, and the monks also changed from monks to lamas. Since then, Han Lamas have appeared in Mount Wutai, which is rare in the country. In the Qing Dynasty, Mount Wutai Huangjiao was divided into two systems: Bodhisattva Dingzasak and Zhenhai Shouzhangjia. Monks have followers of Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan and Turkish nationalities, and become a holy place for national unity and harmonious coexistence.
There are two kinds of monastery organizations in Mount Wutai, namely, Sun Yat-sen and Shifang. The children's temple accepts young monks and ranks them in the order of Shizu, Shifu, apprentice and apprentice. A temple is divided into multiple families. In addition to the common property of the temple, each family can also have private property, such as houses, gold and silver, etc. After the death of the teacher, the apprentice should divide the inheritance. According to the strict regulations of the temple of descendants, the duties of the temple must be held by the monks of the temple. Family auction of private property must be sold to other families in the temple. Most of the temples in Mount Wutai are descendants' temples, which are the basic organizational form to maintain the lasting prosperity of Mount Wutai Buddhism. Shaving is not allowed in Shifang Temple. Monks are all called by their peers. When wandering monks enter the temple, they are a natural member of the temple. As long as you abide by the rules and have considerable ability, you can hold important posts. The famous Shifang Temple in Wutai Mountain includes Lion's Nest, Qingliang Bridge, Bishan Temple, Shifang Hall, etc. Among them, Bishan Temple has the greatest impact.
Mount Wutai Temple, known as more than 200 in the Northern Qi Dynasty. There are 64 famous people in the middle age of Tang Dynasty. During the reign of Song Jiayou, 72 famous people were found. In the 31st year of the Wanli reign of the Ming Dynasty (16O3), there are 90 steles, which are divided into four levels, including 12 big temples, 5 five-top temples, 39 small and medium-sized temples in the mountains, and 34 quiet names in the mountains and jungles. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, 104 temples were collected in the renewal of the Qingliang Annals, of which 68 were called temples within the platform, and the five temples within the platform top were called temples within the platform; The five temples outside Taixiang are called Taiwai temples, with 36. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, among the temples in Mount Wutai, there were ten Qingmiao and ten Dahuang temples. Among the two green and yellow temples in the whole mountain, the leader is called the five places to go. There are three green temples, including Xiantong Temple, Tayuan Temple and Juxiang Temple; There are two yellow temples, namely Bodhisattva Summit and Luohou Temple. In 1956, 124 temples were found, including 99 Qingmiao and 25 Huangmiao. There are 43 existing temples, including 37 in the platform and 6 outside the platform.
Today, Mount Wutai has become a rare treasure house of ancient Chinese architecture.
The earliest preserved ancient temple wooden structures in China are relics of the Tang Dynasty. The main hall of Nanchan Temple and the east hall of Foguang Temple in Wutai Mountain are the ancestors and models of wood structure architecture in the Tang Dynasty. After the Tang Dynasty, Song, Liao, Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing, and the Republic of China all left typical large wooden structures in Mount Wutai. The architecture of the Tang Dynasty is solemn and simple, the architecture of the Song Dynasty is soft and gorgeous, the architecture of the Liao and Jin Dynasties is bold to reduce the columns, the architecture of the Yuan Dynasty is extensive and natural, the architecture of the Ming Dynasty is strict, the architecture of the Qing Dynasty is luxurious and exquisite, and the architecture of the Republic of China is exquisite and complex. The ancient temple wooden structure buildings in Wutai Mountain have strong continuity of history, magnificent building scale, fine detail components, various styles and typical techniques, which are unique in the country. It can be said that the typical buildings in various historical periods preserved in Wutai Mountain are themselves a vast history of wooden structures in ancient Chinese temples.
There are many pagodas and pagodas on Mount Wutai. In terms of materials used, there are brick towers, stone towers, glass towers, wooden towers, iron towers, copper towers, silver towers, jade towers, crystal towers, etc; From the perspective of architectural form, there are car-block wave tower, dense eave tower, pavilion-type tower, pavilion-type tower, Vajra throne tower, and combined tower; In terms of nature, it can be divided into pagodas and tombs. Among the pagodas are Buddhist relics pagodas, spiritual traces pagodas and general worship pagodas. The tomb tower can be divided into Gaozeng tomb tower and general memorial tower; From the perspective of time, the earliest one is the Stone Pagoda of the Northern Wei Dynasty, which has been built in various periods since then. The latest one is the Buddhist relics pagoda built in recent years for the monks who have passed away from Mount Wutai; From the perspective of scale, the larger one is 56.4 meters high, piercing the sky, and trying to compete with the sky. The small one is only 0.05 meters, exquisite and exquisite. From the point of view of the value of the existing pagodas in the country, the Yuanjian Ayu King Pagoda in Yuanguo Temple, the Sakyamuni Buddhist relics pagoda in Tayuan Temple, the combined copper pagoda in Xiantong Temple, and the "Huayan Sutra" character pagoda are all rare treasures, which can be unique. The towers of Mount Wutai have a long history, a large number, a wide range of materials, a complete range of forms and a complex nature, which are rare in similar regions of the country.
The number of Buddha statues in Mount Wutai has reached 17445 after only 37 temples were investigated by the relevant departments. I'm afraid the number of Buddha statues in the whole mountain will be doubled. In terms of materials used and production, it can be roughly divided into eight types: clay sculpture (including hanging sculpture and mold extension), metal casting (including iron, copper, gilding, gold), stone carving (including jade carving. It can be divided into full carving, relief, cliff stone carving), wood carving, porcelain firing, yarn extension, embroidery, and portrait (including mural, scroll painting, scroll illustration and leaf painting). The earliest Buddha statue is a relic of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and the artistic technique of the Jaindra is obvious. The most Buddha statues are clay sculptures, which have been continuous since the Tang Dynasty, forming a unique and complete evolution system. The most rare is the 18 Arhats painted by Ding Yunpeng, a famous painter of the Ming Dynasty, on the leaves of Bodhi, a total of 12 paintings, including single-numbered paintings, double-numbered paintings, and meticulous heavy colors, in one volume. The Wutai Mountain Buddha has different materials, processes and techniques. The whole work is colorful and variegated, which enriches the Wutai Mountain into a rare treasure house of Buddha art.
There are a large number of bells, drums, bowls, plates, steles, tablets, buildings, plaques, plates, couplets, poems, essays, etc. preserved outside the Wutai Mountain Temple. Many of them are precious cultural relics of the country.
Mount Wutai is also a famous summer resort. In the sixth and seventh months of the lunar calendar, the sun is scorching and hot in the summer, but the climate of Mount Wutai is cool and pleasant. Here, the peaks and mountains are verdant, the Jiamu Cong cage, the wild flowers are blooming, the clear springs are everywhere, and the Jialan Temple is scattered among them. Occasionally, there is a gentle breeze blowing on people's cheeks, and white clouds in the blue sky float over their heads, sprinkling a burst of rain, and the sun is shining again, and the eyes are fresh. It's sunny in midsummer, the temperature is moderate, and it is slightly cooler in the morning and evening. It is really a satisfying pleasure to recuperate in this cool and holy land.
In short, Mount Wutai is magnificent and unique. There are many Buddhist temples and cultural relics in the territory. Among them, there are pine pavilions, gurgling springs, floating clouds and mists, and beautiful pavilions. The ancient temple is fragrant in the morning and evening, and the temple bells ring in the morning and evening. There are scenes everywhere and mysterious secrets lurking everywhere. The world praises that "Wutai returns without looking at the temple".
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
Introduction to Zhuge Changqing: Zhuge Changqing, the inheritor and promoter of traditional Chinese culture, is willing to "learn from sages, promote virtue, revitalize China and benefit the world" together with people with the same ideals in the world.
(Zhuge Changqing: firstname.lastname@example.org ）
Zhuge Changqing mailbox：
Zhuge Changqing's Chinese Dream
Learn from sages and carry forward virtue
Revitalizing China for the benefit of the world
Zhuge Changqing mailbox：
Selected Articles in Previous Periods
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1The wisdom of traditional Chinese culture changes the destiny: filial piety to parents+five in one+self-improvement
2Zhuge Changqing's Three Golden Keys to Changing Destiny
3Zhuge Changqing's Greeting Ritual (15 Steps Concise Version)
3 诸葛长青施食仪轨 （十五步简洁版）
4How to repent: the ritual of repentance and the method of repentance (full version)
5How to read the Dizang Sutra: Methods for reciting Dizang Sutra (complete version)
6How to release? The ritual of releasing life
7Zhuge Changqing's Repentance Culture: A Case Study of Repentance Methods for Changing Destiny
8Free Life Culture: Free Life Culture in Ancient China
9Shocking photo of feeding: Buddha, Bodhisattva and Dharma Protector come to the scene
10Feeding Rite Return: the return is changed to simple return