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 Ancient historian Sima Qian

   date:2020-09-18 18:51:06     read:67   

Ancient historian Sima Qian

Sima Qian is a historical star we admire. His success is mainly reflected in three aspects: first, he is knowledgeable and versatile, second, he is highly motivated, and third, he is diligent. No matter what situation we are facing, we should lock our goal, work hard, and success is in our hands.

---------Zhuge Changqing

Sima Qian (135 BC to 87 BC) was born in Xiayang (now Hancheng, Shaanxi). He was born into a family of historiographers, and his ancestors have served as the royal crown prince since the Zhou Dynasty, in charge of literature, history and astrology. After the accession of Emperor Wu, his father Sima Tan served as a Taishiling for 30 years. Sima talks about erudition and is proficient in astronomy, the study of the Book of Changes and the study of Huang and Lao. Sima Qian read "ancient Chinese" from the age of 10 and received his father's enlightenment education. His long history of family learning had a profound impact on his later academic path. Later, he went to Chang'an with his father and studied the Ancient Book of History and the Spring and Autumn Annals with Kong Anguo and Dong Zhongshu, the famous classics masters at that time. At the age of 19, he is a doctoral candidate. At the age of 20, six people, including Dr. Chu Tai, began to travel around the world. His footprints reached Kuaiji and visited the remains of Xia Yu; Once in Gusu, I looked at the five lakes where Fan Li was boating; Arrive in Huaiyin and visit Han Xin; Once in Fengpei, visit the hometown of Liu Bang and Xiao He; Go to Daliang, visit Yimen, and investigate the situation of the Qin army's diversion of water into Daliang; After visiting Chu, visit the palace site of Chunshenjun; I visited Xuedi to investigate the manor of Meng Changjun; I visited Zou Lu and worshipped Confucius and Mencius' hometown. In addition, he also crossed Zhuolu in the north, climbed the Great Wall, toured Yuanxiang in the south, and reached Kongtong in the west. The heroic tour broadened his horizons and increased his knowledge. After returning to Chang'an, Emperor Wu attached great importance to this well-informed and knowledgeable young man. He ordered him to be a doctor and sent him to Sichuan with the order of the emperor to reach the southwest of Kunming today

Reading thousands of books and traveling thousands of miles laid a solid foundation for Sima Qian to write books and make speeches later. In the first year of Yuanfeng (110 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty granted Mount Tai, and Sima Tan, who was appointed as the official of Taishi but could not follow the line, died of anger at Mao. Before he died, he said sadly to Sima Qian, "After I die, you will be the Taishi. After I become the Taishi, don't forget my last wish. Now the Han Dynasty is prosperous, and there is a unification in the sea. There are wise rulers and loyal officials and righteous men on the top. As the Taishi, I can't record it, and I feel guilty. You must finish my unfinished business!" Sima Tan said after his death, Sima Qian succeeded his father as the Taishi Order, It gave him the opportunity to read all the literary and historical classics, various schools of thought, and various archives and historical materials collected in the gold cabinet in the stone room of the Royal Library. In the first year of the Taichu era (104 BC), he reformed the calendar with more than 20 people, including Sun Qing, Hu Sui, the Chinese doctor, Deng Ping, Luo Xiahong, and Tang Du, the astronomer. Through the cooperation of these experts, repeated calculation and selection, a new calendar was finally created in May of this year, which is the famous "Taichu Calendar". The Taichu Calendar changed the first month of the year to the first month of the year (the Qin calendar began with October). The number of days in January was 29.53 days, and the number of days in a year was 365.25 days. This was the most advanced calendar in the world at that time, and also the first major reform in the history of the calendar of the country A. After that, he followed his father's will and prepared to prepare the "Tai Shi Gong Ji" ("Shi Ji").

In the second year of the Tianhan Dynasty (99 BC), his colleague Li Ling was besieged when he set out to attack the Huns, and surrendered to the Huns when the grain was exhausted. When the news reached Chang'an, Emperor Wu was furious. All the civil and military officials of the court denounced Li Ling's surrender as shameful. Sima Qian was silent. Emperor Wu asked him what he had to say. Sima Qian, who was full of bookish anger, said frankly, "Li Ling turned a thousand miles into a war, and the goal was poor, and the ancient famous general was no more than that. Although he surrendered, it was understandable. I thought that as long as he did not die, he would still be loyal to the Han Dynasty." After hearing Sima Qian's words, the angry Emperor Wu of Han believed that he was defending Li Ling, and was deliberately belittling Li Guangli, who was fighting the Huns and was very unhappy at that time, So he ordered Sima Qian to be sentenced to death (or replaced by corruption). In the era of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, those who were sentenced to death could pay 500000 yuan to reduce their death. However, Sima Qian, who was not well off, could not afford the money, so he had to be sentenced to "corruption" (palace punishment) to choose the way of "stealing life". Unfortunately, Sima Qian's spirit was greatly stimulated. He once wanted to commit suicide. But he remembered his father's last words, and encouraged himself with the ancients Confucius, Qu Yuan, Zuo Qiuming, Sun Tzu, Han Fei and others to be angry and active in adversity. Finally, he survived the humiliation with surprising will. Sima Qian, who was physically and mentally battered and lived a humiliating life, knew that "death is inherent in human beings, and death is either heavier than Mount Tai or lighter than a feather". He is determined to finish the history book that his father asked him to finish in the year of candlelight. After six years of imprisonment, the first year of Zhenghe (93 BC) was finally released from prison. Emperor Wu cherishes Sima Qian's talent and appoints him as the middle secretary. From then on, he devoted himself to writing, and finally completed the great work "The Records of the Historian", which is "to study the time between heaven and man, to understand the changes of ancient and modern times, and to become the words of the Chinese family".

"Records of the Historian", formerly known as "Official Records of Taishi", also known as "Official Records of Taishi" and "Records of Taishi", was not called "Records of the Historian" until the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Sima Qian intended to make it "a famous mountain in Tibet, with its deputy in the capital, and become a sage and gentleman in later generations". When Emperor Xuandi of the Han Dynasty, Yang Yun, the grandson of Sima Qian, made it public. At that time, there were a few missing articles to make up for the later generations such as Chu Shaosun.

"Records of the Historian" is the first general history of the biographical style in Chinese history, and has created a grand precedent for the general history of the biographical style. The "Records of the Historian" contains twelve basic records and seventy biographies, as well as thirty aristocratic families, ten tables and eight books, with a total of one hundred and thirty chapters and five hundred and twenty-five thousand six hundred words, recording the historical events from the Yellow Emperor to the Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty for about three thousand years.

"This book" is the general outline of the whole book. It records the lineage of emperors of all dynasties in chronological form. The oldest ones are mainly dynasties, while the later ones are mainly emperors or actual rulers. "This discipline" is essentially a national chronicle of events, which plays an important role in guiding the outline.

The "Aristocratic Family" also records the vassal vassal, the founder of the country and the people with special status and special influence. It may not involve the whole country, but it has a great impact on a certain country or a certain aspect of the social life of the whole country. Most of them can be regarded as "the history of other countries", such as the "Jin Aristocratic Family", the "Chu Aristocratic Family", the "Confucius Aristocratic Family", and the "Chen Shi Aristocratic Family".

The "biographies" take up the most space and can be divided into two categories: one is biographies of characters, one is special biographies of one person, and the other is joint biographies of two or more people. The biographies are arranged according to the nature of characters. The range of characters recorded is very wide, involving aristocrats, bureaucrats, politicians, economists, militarists, philosophers, writers, economists, strategists, hermits, lobbyists, assassins, rangers, doctors, diviners, haiyu and other social strata. The other is the record of foreign or domestic minorities, involving the history of Sino-foreign relations and the history of domestic ethnic relations. The former type of biographies includes "Biography of Boyi", "Biography of Sun Tzu Wu Qi", "Biography of Assassins", "Biography of Confucianism", etc; The latter category includes "Xiongnu Biography", "South Vietnam Biography", "Southwest Yi Biography", "Korean Biography", etc. "Biography" plays a substantial and concrete role in "this discipline".

The "table" lists the lineage, titles and brief political achievements of emperors, vassals, nobles, generals and ministers, and is distinguished by its age and history. Today's view can also be divided into two categories: event table and character table, such as "three generations table", "twelve marquis table", "high ancestor meritorious minister and marquis table", "general minister and famous minister table since the rise of the Han Dynasty", and so on. The role of "table" is to be visual and intuitive, which is easy to see. It can complement the shortcomings of "book", "family" and "biographies", and it can also save a lot of words, so that the record is not cumbersome.

"Book", which describes the calendar, rites and music, Fengchan, water conservancy, economy and other laws and regulations in different categories, reflects all aspects of social life, and is a very important part of the Historical Records, such as "Book of Rites", "Book of Music", "Calendar", "Book of Rivers and Channels", "Book of Peace", and so on. Among them, the "Pingzhun Book" is the most splendid, which records the social and economic conditions, especially the evolution of the economic policies of the Han Dynasty, and sets the precedent for the "food and goods record" in the official history of future generations.

Historically, people have called the Records of the Historian a biographical history book, emphasizing the importance of this book and biographies. In fact, as a part of the whole book, tables, books and aristocratic families all have independent values that can not be replaced by records and biographies. Strictly speaking, it should be a comprehensive history book. Sima Qian not only recorded a large number of historical facts in the Records of the Historian, but also wanted to "examine his actions, integrate them from beginning to end, and check the discipline of his success and failure, and make good or bad", so as to "study the relationship between heaven and man, understand the changes of ancient and modern times, and become a family word". He should explore some reasons from the complicated historical facts and put forward his own views. Therefore, he is not only a organizer of historical events, but also a great thinker.

In addition to the Historical Records, Sima Qian also wrote eight pieces of Fu, all of which have been scattered. Only the 30 volumes of Art and Literature Collection contain the fragments of "The Sad Man Never Met Fu".

His "Report to Ren'an (Shaoqing) Book" is a famous argumentative essay. The article describes the process of his court punishment for the Liling incident; It expressed the grief and indignation of loyalty and suspicion and innocent punishment, and exposed the tyranny and cruelty of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty and the politics of cruel officials at that time; Finally, he expressed his determination to write the book and create the Records of the Historian.

Sima Qian's academic thought occupies an important and prominent position in the history of ancient Chinese ideology and culture. "Records of the Historian" was praised by Lu Xun as "the best song of historians, and the most prosaic", which deserved it.





                                           ---------  诸葛长青


     司马迁(前135 ~ 前87)字子长,夏阳(今陕西韩城)人。他生于史官世家,祖先自周代起就任王室太史,掌管文史星卜。父亲司马谈在武帝即位后,任太史令达三十年之久。司马谈博学,精通天文、 《易》学和黄老之学。司马迁十岁起诵读「古文」,并接受其父的启蒙教育。渊源久长的家学对他后来治学道路有深刻的影响。后随父去长安,同当时著名经学大师孔安国、董仲舒学习《古文尚书》和《春秋》。十九岁为补博士子弟。二十岁随博士褚太等六人「循行天下」,开始了他的游历生活。他的足迹到达会稽,访问夏禹的遗迹;到过姑苏,眺望范蠡泛舟的五湖;到达淮阴,访求韩信的故事;到过丰沛,访问刘邦、萧何的故乡;到过大梁,访问夷门,并考察秦军引河水灌大梁的情形;到过楚,访问春申君的宫殿遗址;到过薛地,考察孟尝君的封邑;到过邹鲁,拜仰孔孟的家乡。此外,他还北过涿鹿,登长城,南游沅湘,西至崆峒。壮游使他开阔了眼界,增长了知识。回到长安后,武帝对这个广闻博识、学问丰富的年轻人十分重视,命他为郎中,让他带着皇帝的命令出使巴蜀,到达今天昆明一带大西南地区.








      「表」,以谱列帝王、诸侯、贵族、将相大臣的世系、爵位和简要政绩,以年代远近、史事繁简而别为世表、年表、月表。今人观之,也可分为大事表和人物表两类,诸如「三代世表」、「十二诸侯年表」、「高祖功臣侯者年表」、「汉兴以来将相名臣年表」等。「表」的作用是形象、直观,便于观览,可补「本纪」、「世家」、  「列传」之不足,又可省去不少文字,使记载免于繁冗。  


     历来人们称《史记》是纪传体史书,强调本纪和列传的重要性。其实,作为全书的组成部分,表、书、世家都有纪、传不能代替的独立的价值,严格地说,它应是纪传志书体,是一种综合体史书。  司马迁在《史记》里不仅记载了大量史实,并且要「考其行事,综其始终,稽其成败兴坏之纪」,来「究天人之际,通古今之变,成一家之言」。他要从错综复杂的历史事实中探索出一些道理,提出自己的看法来。因此,他不只是一个史事的整理者,而且是一个伟大的思想家。  





(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)

Introduction to Zhuge Changqing: Zhuge Changqing, the inheritor and promoter of traditional Chinese culture, is willing to "learn from sages, promote virtue, revitalize China and benefit the world" together with people with the same ideals in the world.

(Zhuge Changqing: zhuge8031@163.com )

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Zhuge Changqing's Chinese Dream

Learn from sages and carry forward virtue

Revitalizing China for the benefit of the world










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振兴中华 造福世界




Selected Articles in Previous Periods

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1The wisdom of traditional Chinese culture changes the destiny: filial piety to parents+five in one+self-improvement


2Zhuge Changqing's Three Golden Keys to Changing Destiny

2诸葛长青改命运三把金钥匙诸葛长青施食仪轨 (十五步简洁版)

3Zhuge Changqing's Greeting Ritual (15 Steps Concise Version)

3诸葛长青施食仪轨 (十五步简洁版)

4How to repent: the ritual of repentance and the method of repentance (full version)

4   如何忏悔:忏悔仪轨忏悔方法(完整版)

5How to read the Dizang Sutra: Methods for reciting Dizang Sutra (complete version)


6How to release? The ritual of releasing life


7Zhuge Changqing's Repentance Culture: A Case Study of Repentance Methods for Changing Destiny


8Free Life Culture: Free Life Culture in Ancient China


9Shocking photo of feeding: Buddha, Bodhisattva and Dharma Protector come to the scene


10Feeding Rite Return: the return is changed to simple return




That is to say, with this merit and virtue, we should solemnly observe the Buddha's net ten. Report four blessings and save three hardships. Those who wish to see and hear,Know and send Bodhi Heart. To live in a state of bliss

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