Where is the only number one paper retained in the country?
The only number one volume retained in the country:
The volume of the number one scholar handed down through the ages, Zhao Bingzhong, Qingzhou, Shandong Province
The champion is the product of the imperial examination system. In ancient society, the number one scholar was the dream of many scholars. How proud and glorious it is to become famous all over the world! China's imperial examination system was founded in the middle of the Sui Dynasty and abolished at the end of the Qing Dynasty. It has a history of 1300 years. It has produced more than 700 number one winners, with more than 620 people on record, including He Zhizhang, Wang Wei, Liu Gongquan of the Tang Dynasty, Wen Tianxiang of the Song Dynasty, Yang Shen of the Ming Dynasty, and Weng Tonghe of the Qing Dynasty. However, due to various reasons, there is only one number one ink test paper of the number one winner that has been handed down so far in the country, That is the first prize volume of Zhao Bingzhong Palace Examination in the Ming Dynasty, the treasure of the town and the national first-class cultural relics collected by the Qingzhou Museum in Shandong Province. At the Shandong Provincial Cultural Relics Exhibition co-organized by our newspaper, this precious number one scroll was first presented to the audience in Quancheng.
Qingzhou talents are upright
Since ancient times, Qingzhou has been a place where many outstanding and talented people have come out. There have been six number one winners, including Zhao Bingzhong, the author of the number one winner volume. Zhao Bingzhong (1573-1626 AD), known as Jiqing and Qiyang, was born in a family of officials in Zhengmu Village, Qingzhou. Influenced by his family, he was diligent and studious since childhood, and read the four books and five classics of the Confucian classics. He was brilliant and stood out in the provincial, government and hospital examinations. At the age of 15, he was a student of the Imperial College and a 24-year-old candidate for the imperial examination. In the 26th year of Wanli (1589 AD), he took part in the imperial examination at the age of 25, and won the first place in the first place in the imperial examination. At the age of 30, he served as a co-examiner in the imperial examination. At the age of 39, he was promoted to the commoner's son and passed the imperial examination in the south of the Yangtze River. He selected many pillars for the country, and later promoted to the Ministry of Rites.
Zhao Bingzhong is very upright and fearless of authority. It is said that at that time, Liu Yi, a supervisor of the school, was strict in temperament. When he was presiding over the exam in Changle County, a candidate was severely punished for holding a copy in his shoes for cheating. From then on, it was stipulated that all candidates stood barefoot in the snow waiting for admission. When Zhao Bingzhong took the exam at the age of 15, he was furious about this regulation, and resolutely walked up to the stage and asked Liu Yi, "Why is everyone involved because of one person's misbehavior? Is this the entry rule for the sages to test and select talents?" After hearing this, Liu Yi abolished this regulation.
However, after Zhao Bingzhong was the No. 1 Scholar in high school and entered the official career, his upright personality was not allowed by the eunuch Wei Zhongxian, who was expert in court affairs and framed dissidents. In 1624 (the fourth year of Tianqi), Minister Yang Lian wrote a letter to impeach Wei Zhongxian, listing the 24 major crimes of Wei Zhongxian. The next year, Miao Changqi was framed by Wei Zhongxian and sentenced to death. Wei Zhongxian asked Zhao Bingzhong, but Zhao Bingzhong ignored him. Wei Zhongxian hated his guts and repeatedly said bad things about him in front of Xi Zong. Xizong said, "Don't you mean the man who wears a short robe to preach? I think that man is loyal and ready to use him!" Later, Zhao Bingzhong saw that the regime was changing, and Wei Zhongxian was persecuting again and again, so he wrote many times to ask for leave, and got Xizong's consent. However, shortly after returning to his hometown, he was cut off by the imperial court with an unwarranted charge. After that, the Wei Party became more and more arrogant, and the regime became more unmanageable. Zhao Bingzhong died of resentment in 1626. In the early years of Chongzhen, the court rehabilitated him, restored the original official, added the crown prince, and buried him according to the minister's etiquette.
The secret files of the court spread among the people
According to expert appraisal, the paper, silk, characters and seals of the first prize roll of Zhao Bingzhong's palace examination are all original materials of the Ming Dynasty. Before that, the examination paper of the hall of the Ming Dynasty in China had not been found. Therefore, the examination paper of the hall of Zhao Bingzhong, who won the first prize in the examination, became the only one at home and abroad. The discovery of the imperial examination paper filled the gap in the imperial archives of the Ming Dynasty in China and provided authentic and reliable data for the study of China's imperial examination system.
The number one scroll of the imperial examination in ancient China is generally collected in the court as an important file. Anyone who takes it out of the court without permission will destroy the nine families. However, due to the change of dynasties, continuous wars and foreign aggression, the number one scroll in the imperial court has been lost. Zhao Bingzhong's number one scroll was collected in the hands of his descendants before being obtained by the Qingzhou Museum, and has always been regarded as the treasure of his family. It has been carefully collected and never hidden. From the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty to the present, after more than 400 years of ups and downs, the number one scroll remains intact. So, how did the first prize volume of Zhao Bingzhong's palace exam leave the court? Later generations can only speculate about this problem. The most important reason should be that Zhao Bingzhong was afraid that Wei Zhongxian would frame himself with the argument on the number one paper, so he secretly took out his palace examination paper before returning to his hometown, so the number one paper passed down from generation to generation. Finally, the number one scroll was donated to Qingzhou Museum in 1983 by Zhao Huanbin, the 13th grandson of Zhao Bingzhong, and became the treasure of the museum.
According to Zhao Huanbin, the number one scroll is the heirloom of his family, and generations have regarded it more important than life. Especially during the Cultural Revolution, many of the relics of the number one champion were destroyed. It was the old man Zhao Huanbin who had an extra mind and hid the number one champion roll in the pillow and put it under his head every day.
Elegant and incomparable flavor
The number one volume is a 19-fold volume, with a total height of 47.6 cm and a width of 14.1 cm per fold. It is framed with three layers of rice paper, and its cover and back cover are all framed in silk. The two volumes with different contents are displayed in different book styles. The Song typeface of the first sentence is square, round and vigorous, while the regular script of the second sentence is elegant and elegant, empty and graceful. It is an eight-part essay of 2460 characters. The writing is smooth and neat, and the font is meaningful. There is no alteration or misprint in the full text, and it is completed at one go. At the end of the beautiful article, the official positions and names of nine reviewers, such as Shaobao and the Crown Prince, the Minister of the Ministry of Public Affairs, and Zhang Wei, the Great Scholar of the Hall of Wu Yingdian, are signed successively. At the bottom of the top of the album, there is a huge vertical "Mifeng Pass"; On the top, there is the absolute imperial approval of the red pen - "the first and the first".
From the perspective of calligraphy, style of writing, layout, charm and talent, this number one scroll is a classic! Zhao Bingzhong's writing skill between the lines is amazing. From the beginning to the end, it is like flowing clouds and flowing water. It is arbitrary, and there is no deliberate preparation. This is the work of the proposition within the time limit in the examination room. It is not easy to achieve this level. And the scribe's handwriting is not inferior. From his calligraphy, we can see that the ancients attached great importance to cultural quality and cultivation.
A profound and simple way to express talents
What exactly did Zhao Bingzhong write on the test paper, the number one champion who has defeated Qunfang?
During the palace examination, the emperor decided that the title was "Ask the Emperor's Politics and the Emperor's Heart". This question is very clear. It requires the respondents to answer the question of how to govern and what kind of ideology to guide the ruling from the standpoint of the emperor. Zhao Bingzhong stuck to the question in the answer sheet and answered it straight to the point. In order to govern the country harmoniously and prosperously, the emperor should have solid governance and solid governance. In the present words, there must be practical governance methods and practical governance ideas. Then, he explained this way of governing the country and the thought of governing the country, carefully summarized the experience and lessons of the emperors in the past dynasties, pointed out the shortcomings of the times, and put forward ten suggestions for governing the country. He is well-founded and sincere in his words. Starting from the summary of history and the social reality at that time, he is not afraid to offend the majesty of the emperor, reflecting his great talent and strategy. This is very valuable in China's feudal society. He answered the emperor's questions with practical and solid statements, which made the emperor's Long Yan very happy, and the Zhu Bi set the "first and first place", that is, the number one scholar, and became the 47th number one scholar in the Ming Dynasty.
Chinese treasures returned to Zhao
After the number one scroll was collected in Qingzhou Museum in 1983, the museum gained a great reputation, and visitors from home and abroad came in an endless stream. But no one expected that in early August 1991, this national first-class cultural relic, known as the treasure of the museum town, disappeared. The ability to infiltrate the first-level cultural relics warehouse accurately shows that the thieves are very familiar with the warehouse and cultural relics. The police analyzed that this must be a case of theft or collusion inside and outside. After investigation and inquiry, a key suspect was found - Lin Chuntao, the security officer of the Qingzhou Museum at that time. While the police were monitoring, Lin Chuntao lied about going to the toilet and escaped in the dark. Later, before the cultural relics were released, the public security personnel fought for eight days and nine nights, and traveled thousands of miles, finally recovered the first prize and returned to Zhao. The thief was sentenced to death.
It has been 16 years since the first prize roll was lost and recovered. It is not only an indispensable documentary basis for studying Zhao Bingzhong, a historical figure, but also a valuable material for studying the political system and imperial examination system of the Ming Dynasty. It is also a precious art treasure. People can go to the Shandong Provincial Museum to witness the style of the first prize scroll.
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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