Zeng Guofan's Team Secret II
Cultivate one's moral integrity, unify one's family, govern the country, and level the world
China · Winners Club http://q.blog.sina.com.cn/chgyzh
The majesty of the Eastern Dragon Emperor!
Zeng Guofan fought all over the world with both civil and military skills. Wu is his Hunan army, Wen is his shogunate. Zeng Guofan runs his business from the world's perspective. He attracts, trains and recommends talents. According to incomplete statistics, 47 people came from Zeng Guofan's staff and then became officials of the third grade, and 33 people went to the governor, including one academician, one military aircraft minister, and one academician on duty. They are like the "seeds" sown by Zeng Guofan, blooming and bearing fruit behind them one after another
Zeng Guofan is well aware that talent is the foundation of the world.
Therefore, he attracts, trains and recommends talents. Sometimes it's not at all to be cheated by fake talents.
His love for talent has attracted countless talents and elites.
Zuo Zongtang, Li Hongzhang and others are representatives of his elite disciples.
The elite is famous because of Zeng Guofan's success, and Zeng Guofan is also famous because of talents.
For the sake of others, Zeng Guofan also studied the "face art" seriously, and could see through his life to the people he met. This knowledge has been handed down and is called "Ice Book".
Zeng Guofan once set up a special talent recruitment agency. After personal inspection, inquiry and judgment, as long as they are good talents, all of them will be retained. After several years, he will try to recommend foreign senior officials. So Li Hongzhang and others admired him. The administrative offices of Zeng Guofan's shogunate can be divided into two categories: military affairs and food and salaries.
There are more than ten military and political offices, and their functions can be divided into the following categories.
（1） The secretary team includes counselors and various copywriters around Zeng Guofan. Zeng Guofan called it the "shogunate", and the author named it the Secretariat. It not only occupies the primary position in the military and political offices, but also is the nerve center of the whole shogunate and even the former Hunan army. Zeng Guofan's report to the superior, the instructions of the lower level, the communication and negotiation between the front and the right, and the adjustment of internal relations are all carried out through this organization. The specific work of the Secretariat is mainly to draft consultation, letters, letters and notes, manage documents and archives, with clear division of labor and specific responsibilities. In addition, he sometimes helped Zeng Guofan to make suggestions, investigate and deal with important events. Because of the important nature of the work of the secretaries and the closest relationship with Zeng Guofan, they have the highest status and the most generous treatment among the staff. People who are close to him and have prominent status, such as Zuo Zongtang, Li Hongzhang, Qian Yingpu, Liu Rong, Guo Songtao and so on, have held positions. In addition to being "faithful and reliable", the Secretariat should also be familiar with government affairs and have excellent literary skills, especially those who draft memorials. And these people are often the easiest to get insurance and the earliest to get shortage, which is beyond the reach of other personnel.
（2） Ideological and cultural institutions, including the Editorial Bureau and the Zhongyi Bureau. The full name of the Loyalty Bureau is the Loyalty Interview Bureau, also known as the Loyalty Interview Section. Its main task is to interview the "officials and gentry who died and died in battle" for the Qing Dynasty in the war, summarize the deeds, and ask Zeng Guofan to set up special shrines and workshops to support ethics and maintain decency. In fact, this was Zeng Guofan's ideological and political work for the feudal landlord class. The staff of the bureau mainly include Chen Ai, Fang Zongcheng, Wang Han, etc. The main task of the Editorial Bureau is to publish famous books. Among them, many famous scholars, such as Luo Ruhuai, Mo Youzhi, Wang Shiduo, Li Shanlan, Zhang Wenhu and Liu Yusong, have been included in the "Literary Garden" and other biographies of the "Draft of the History of the Qing Dynasty".
（3） Military and intelligence agencies, including the Battalion Office and the Acquisition and Compilation Office. The battalion office is slightly like the staff department in today's military, but its positions and powers are slightly different. Its conditions of employment are both civil and military. Shen Baozhen, Li Rong, Li Yuandu, Luo Xuan and others have all served in it. The collection and compilation institute mainly includes Zhang Dejian, Zou Hanzhang, Cheng Fenghuang and others. Its main task is to collect and sort out the strategic information of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom through surrender, refugees and reconnaissance activities, and then compile the book "Collection of Thieves".
（4） Judiciary. Shortly after Zeng Guofan arrived in Changsha at the beginning of the third year of Xianfeng's reign, he approved to set up a case investigation bureau in the government office of the regimental training minister, and wantonly hunted and killed Hunan people who were suspected of anti-Qing activities. In handling cases, the Judicial Bureau abolished all judicial procedures, and no evidence was needed for conviction. According to the words of the group gentry, people could be killed. It is a shogunate institution set up immediately after the Secretariat, and Liu Jiande and Li Yunguan who undertook the case also became the first group of staff. After Zeng Guofan's "Eastern Expedition", the case investigation bureau was renamed the hair examination bureau and became a permanent institution in the shogunate. In case of any case, it was handed over to the hair examination committee for trial. During this period, most of the crimes committed in the army were tried, such as the case of Wan Ruishu robbing the grain table and the case of Li Jinyang's "connecting thieves". During Zeng Guofan's tenure as governor of Zhili, in order to clear up the accumulated lawsuits over the years and handle the Tianjin religious cases, he has set up a trial bureau to hear the cases. The persons who have served in the Bureau mainly include Zhang Chengshi, Li Xingrui, Pang Jiyun, Sun Changfu, Wu Rulun, etc. During the northern campaign against Nien in the fourth year of Tongzhi's reign, Zeng Guofan, following the "Qing bandits" approach of Hunan Province, sent a large number of polder inspectors to check the polder in the areas of Mongolia and Bo, the hometown of the Nien army, in order to rectify and rebuild the local grass-roots regime, stabilize social order, and cut off the links between the local gentry and the Nien army. The polder inspector has the power of life and death. In accordance with Zeng Guofan's order, they promoted, promoted and rewarded all the gentry who were close to the Hunan army, regardless of whether they had been from Miao to Nian in the past. They also removed and punished all the gentry who were unwilling to use them, even if they had not been from Miao to Nian, and even more severely arrested and killed some people who returned to Nian or were associated with the Nian army. In order to catch more and kill more, Zeng Guofan decided the merits and demerits of the members of the investigation committee by killing more. Those who killed more were greatly encouraged and those who were merciless were severely reprimanded. Many people began to cringe, and after being reprimanded, they acted boldly and indiscriminately, thus becoming "capable members".
（5） Aftermath institutions include the General Administration of Aftermath and the Youth League Training, Baojia, Land Property and Pension Bureau. After the Hunan army captured Anqing and Jiangning, Zeng Guofan successively set up a general bureau of rehabilitation in the two places, including regimental training, Baojia, farm produce, rice grain, bullets, gunpowder, and pension bureaus to maintain order, check farm produce, collect money and grain, supply military supplies, and relieve the victims. Wan Qichen, Li Rong and others are in charge of this institution. Zeng Guofan's food and wage organization is divided into two systems: supply and fund-raising. The supply system includes the grain platform, reimbursement bureau and military enterprises. Grain platforms are divided into operating grain platforms, transit grain platforms and rear grain platforms. Their overall task is to be responsible for the supply of grain rates and various military supplies, while different grain platforms have different specific tasks and work characteristics. The operational grain platform, also known as the supporting grain platform, is mainly responsible for the supply of the front-line forces. It generally acts together with Zeng Guofan's Hunan army camp. Sometimes, according to the needs of the war situation, it often sets up a branch grain station or a former enemy support station outside the main grain station, such as Qimen Grain Station (also known as Shannei Grain Station), Wuwei Grain Station (also known as Jiangbei Grain Station), Xuzhou Grain Station, Anqing Silver Money Support Station, etc., to solve the supply problem of a certain army or several armies in the front line nearby. In fact, these grain platforms also belong to marketing grain platforms. The operators of the Grain Platform mainly include Li Hanzhang, Zhang Shaonan, Sui Cangzhu, Wang Yanchang, Li Xingrui, Li Honghui, Li Zuoshi, etc.
There are three main ways for Zeng Guofan to cultivate talents: reading, training and teaching by words and deeds.
In the exhortation order specially formulated for the staff, he stipulated that anyone who entered the shogunate must learn one thing from the four things of military, politics, salary and culture, and combine with the actual situation to increase their ability. There are two ways to learn: learning from the ancient and learning from the present. To learn from the ancient, you should read more books, and to learn from the present, you should find more examples and consult more people. He pays special attention to the secretaries around him. He not only often talks with people individually, but also prescribes courses and takes regular examinations if conditions permit.
At the same time, he also used his spare time to talk about the past and the present and impart his reading experience and practical experience to his staff. For the staff who are not around, they mainly enlighten and impart knowledge and experience through letters and letters, combining with practical matters.
In the direction of training, Zeng Guofan also paid attention to teaching students according to their aptitude and trained them according to their characteristics. Some people, such as Zhang Yuzhao, have a good literary foundation, but are not suitable for being an official. Zeng Guofan ordered him to specialize in literature for development. Wu Rulun, Xue Fucheng and Li Shuchang, the other three of his so-called "Four Disciples of Literature", were also trained in literature by Zeng Guofan, but their requirements were somewhat different from those of Zhang Yuzhao. On the issue of training talents, Zeng Guofan is really painstaking and tireless all his life. Many staff members were moved by him and worshipped him as their teacher. For example, Zhao Liewen entered the scene at the beginning of the sixth year of Xianfeng, and entered the scene again in the eleventh year of Xianfeng. In the fourth year of Tongye, he began to worship teachers and changed his address. This shows that he is serious, not rash and flattering. There are so many talents in Zeng Guofan's staff. For most of them, they are probably inseparable from Zeng Guofan's education and training.
However, among Zeng Guofan's staff, the largest number of people and the most influential were political personnel.
Some of them live in the main cities, and some of them hold the position of the frontier alone. For a time, they have formed a situation of "famous officials and officials, half out of their doors" . According to incomplete statistics, there are 47 people who came from Zeng Guofan's staff and then went to the third rank, and 33 people who went to the governor, including one academician, one military aircraft minister, and one academician on duty. They are like the "seeds" planted by Zeng Guofan, which have blossomed and borne fruit behind them. As a result, the employment, administration, national defense, and diplomacy of the late Qing Dynasty were all branded with Zeng Guofan's ideological and political brand, and for a time, a general mood was formed, affecting the entire political situation.
This kind of Hunan and Huai military system, especially the situation that Zeng Guofan's staff members presided over important political affairs everywhere, had appeared when Zeng Guofan was alive, but became more obvious in Guangxu years. As far as the local governors, who had the greatest real power, were concerned, at that time, there were only eight officers in charge of the army and government, except for the two governors of the river and the water. From the first year to the tenth year of Guangxu's reign, there were 18 people in the country, including 12 officials from the Hunan-Huaihe Department and 6 former staff of Zeng Guofan, accounting for one third of the total. In the three to four years of Guangxu's reign, the situation was particularly prominent. Not only were the eight governors all of the officials of the Hunan-Huaihe Department, but also there were five former staff members of Zeng Guofan, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the total. This phenomenon is rare in the history of all dynasties. No wonder Xia Zhenwu, a scholar at the end of the Qing Dynasty, said: "For decades, all the practices of the government and the public have been the political and academic skills of Xiang Xiang."
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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