Celebrities and patriots: Di Renjie, the famous prime minister of the Tang Dynasty
Wise and resourceful, upright, outstanding political achievements, selfless, loyal, filial, benevolent and righteous... This is the precious wealth that Di Renjie, the famous prime minister of the generation, left to future generations.
In the early days of the prosperous Tang Dynasty in China, there appeared a statesman who was wise, shrewd, upright, outstanding and far-sighted. He was Di Renjie, a famous and famous politician in the world.
Di Renjie (630-700 years), with the name of Huaiying, was born in Taiyuan (now the southern suburb of Dayuan), Binzhou, in the Tang Dynasty. So far, there is still an ancient locust tree in its hometown, Di Village, with luxuriant branches and leaves. It has been handed down from generation to generation by Di Mu. There is still a stone tablet beside the ancient locust tree with the inscription "Di Liang's hometown".
Di Renjie was born in a family of commoner bureaucrats. Grandfather Di Xiaoxu was appointed Zuo Cheng, the minister of the imperial court of Taizong Zhenguan. His father, Di Zhixun, became governor. Renjie received strict feudal education when he was young, and once he grew up, he took up the position in the Ming Dynasty and joined the army in Bianzhou. Shortly after his initial official career, he was falsely accused and detained by corrupt officials. Yan Liben, the deposed envoy, accepted the summons. During the call, Renjie spoke frankly and reasoned and complained about grievances. Yan Liben also found that it was a false accusation that Renjie was indeed outstanding in talent and learning, and was actually a "relic of the sea", so he recommended him to join the army as Bingzhou Facao.
In the fifth year of Xianqing (660), Emperor Gaozong Li Zhi and Empress Wu Zetian traveled to Fenyang Palace, passing through Taiyuan, Binzhou. Li Chongxuan, the governor of the state of Bingzhou, went to the official road of Fenyang and passed through the jealous temple in the territory. He was afraid that the queen would be jealous of the jealous woman. Something unexpected happened, which made tens of thousands of new imperial roads built by the conscription officials and people to please the emperor and the queen. Di Renjie, however, tried to oppose it, and said disapprovingly, "The Son of Heaven's journey, the wind and dust, the rain master's sprinkling, why envy women to avoid evil. After hearing the news, Emperor Gaozong praised Renjie as "a real husband".
In the first year of Yifeng (676), Di Renjie was promoted to the rank of Prime Minister of Dali and took charge of the country's criminal law. In his first year in office, he personally examined cases and handled numerous cases accumulated by his predecessor, involving more than 17000 lives. He was well informed and decisive, followed the law accurately, and dismissed the grievance, which was praised by the people at that time, and gained a reputation at that time. In September of this year, the two generals, Zuo Weiwei Senior General Quan Shancai and Right Jianmen Zhonglang General Fan Huaiyi, were ordered to be put to death because they had cut down a large number of Zhaoling cypress trees by mistake. Renjie received the edict of Emperor Gaozong to kill two generals, and reasoned: "The law of the country is clear, and two people should not die." 'Emperor Gaozong said with a displeased face, "The edict has been issued." Di Renjie admonished with a guilty amount: "Now if you make a mistake, you will kill two generals. If you steal one shot, what will you do? If you don't kill one, it is the law that doesn't believe in others. I can't follow the edict to entrap your majesty in injustice, lest future generations will discuss what your majesty is?" Emperor Gaozong immediately felt reasonable, So he withdrew and was sentenced to exile. At the very beginning, the name of Renjie shook the capital.
Later, Renjie stepped down from the post of Dali Cheng, let local officials go, and became the governor of Ningzhou. Ningzhou is located in the west of Longyou, where Han and Rong live together. After Ren Jie took office, he felt the people's feelings, stroked them like soldiers, and made peace inside and outside, which was very popular with the local officials and people. The county people praised his virtue and wrote inscriptions. Until Di Renjie left Ningzhou for the Dongguan (Ministry of Work) Duilang, the imperial historian Guo Han patrolled Longyou, and the people of Ningzhou still "sang the praises of the governor and the governor". Guo Han presented Renjie's political achievements to the court and also strongly recommended him to be promoted to Zuo Cheng of Wenchang (Shangshutai).
In June of the fourth year of Hangong (688), Wu Zetian appointed Di Renjie as the ambassador of the governor of Jiangnan to inspect the land of Wu and Chu. When Renjie arrived in the south of the Yangtze River, he saw that the local historiographers had an unusual selection. The high wind of sacrificing to the shrine was actually an act of hurting the people. Therefore, Wu Zetian was allowed to abolish it. The Wu family approved the music immediately, so Di Renjie burned more than 1700 "obscene tunes", leaving only four kinds of sacred words worthy of commemoration and praise, such as Xia Yu, Wu Taibo, Ji Zha and Wu Zixu, to enjoy the sacrifice.
The fourth year of Hangong (688) is the fifth year after Empress Wu Zetian abolished the Zhongzong Li Xian, and was called the Empress Dowager. Over the past five years, Wu Zetian launched frequent political attacks in order to combat the privileges of aristocratic bureaucrats and landlords and foster the power of commoner bureaucrats and landlords. The contradiction between the aristocratic family of big landlords with political privileges and the new bureaucratic group representing the interests of small and medium-sized landlords is increasingly intensified. In July of that year, Li Zhen, the aristocrat of the Tang Dynasty and the governor of Bozhou, the king of Yue, and Li Chong, the governor of Yuzhou, the king of Langya, set out to fight against the Wu family and attempt to recover the Zhongzong. However, due to the lack of support from the people, Li Chong broke up after only eight days. Li Zhen responded in a panic in Bozhou, and killed herself in a few days. The officials and people of Yuzhou heard that the Tang army, headed by the Prime Minister Zhang Guangfu, was about to arrive, and they came out of the city to welcome them. However, the 300000 Tang troops led by Zhang Guangfu, regardless of their merits, plundered and slaughtered innocent people. Later, in the name of searching for Li Zhen's followers, they raided the family and seized people. There were six or seven hundred people sitting together, and more than five thousand people were born. At one time, the grievance was very serious, and the victims were numerous. It was at this time that Di Renjie visited Jiangnan and returned to Korea. He resigned from his post as the ambassador of the governor of Jiangnan Road, and appointed Yu Zetianwu to serve as the governor of Yuzhou. When he arrived in Yuzhou, he was very upset when he saw that there were many people suffering from grief. So, on the one hand, he ordered his subordinates to release the death prisoners, on the other hand, he secretly wrote a letter to Wu Zetian, read out the "mistakes" of the original case, and asked Wu to "forgive". Empress Wu knew that Ren Jie was upright and believed that what was played was true, so she issued an edict to change the killing to the flow, and all of them were exiled to Fengzhou. When these prisoners left for Fengzhou and passed through Ningzhou, where Di Renjie had once ruled, the Ningzhou elders warmly welcomed and comforted them, and said with emotion, "I am your servant!" At that time, the prisoners of Yuzhou and the Ningzhou elders, together, wept bitterly under the monument of virtue built for Di Renjie to show their gratitude.
Zhang Guangfu, the commander of the three armies and the prime minister of the current dynasty who was ordered to attack Li Zhen, was greatly dissatisfied with Di Renjie's honest behavior of secretly reporting the injustice of Yuzhou and obtaining the pardon of the Empress Wu. He accused Renjie of belittling the Marshal and slandering him. Renjie, fearless of power, argued that "Li Zhen, the king of Yue, who had disrupted Runan, died and Wan Zhen was alive." Zhang Guangfu didn't understand what he meant? Renjie said, "Your total number of soldiers is 300000, and the target of the expedition is Li Zhen. People in Yuzhou heard that the Tang army had arrived, and those who had fallen out of the city came in all directions, but you were killing and looting, and blood was flowing all over the country. Isn't it Wan Zhen? I can't wait for Shang Fang to cut off the horse sword and put it on your neck." As a new governor of the state, how dare to defend the people and rebuke the prime minister? This is a moral character that is not afraid of the strong beam and dare to resist. Although Zhang Guangfu had no words to say, he hated Renjie in his heart. After he returned to the court, he wrote in succession to accuse Renjie of arrogance and arrogance. The Wu family believed Zhang Guangfu's one-sided words and demoted Renjie as the governor of Fuzhou and then to Sima of Luozhou.
In the second year of Tianshu (691), Wu Zetian finally found that she believed in Zhang Guangfu's false accusation, which made Renjie unjustified. So he knew his mistake and corrected it. He transferred Renjie back to the capital, and entrusted him with important tasks, including promotion of the local official (the head of household), the maid, and Pingzhang (the prime minister) of Luantai (the subordinate province), Tongfeng Pavilion (the central book province). In the spring of the first year of longevity (692), Wu Zetian's favorite minister and cruel official came to the Junchen to make accusations, falsely accusing the prime minister, Di Renjie, Ren Zhigu, Pei Xingben, the prime minister, Wei Yuanzhong, the governor, and Li Sizhen, the governor of Luzhou. At this time, in the third year of Wu Zetian's accession to the throne after the reform, she used cruel officials to spread the wind of informants, and framed and killed the Tang Dynasty's patriarch Xungui and the Li family in order to consolidate her regime. Renjie and others were arrested immediately after being convicted in the name of "conspiracy". After Renjie was arrested and put into prison, Wu still had doubts about Renjie's rebellion. She personally ordered Li Qiao and Zhang Deyu, the young minister of Dali Temple, to investigate and implement the matter and investigate whether Renjie really conspired. Unexpectedly, Zhang Deyu and Li Qiao were afraid of offending cruel officials and would not be peaceful in the future. They knew that Renjie and others were innocent and were falsely accused, but they still agreed with the falsehood of Lai Junchen. According to the provisions of the law at that time, those who admitted the opposition immediately after interrogation could be exempted from death; If you don't admit it, you will be poisoned. When I came to Junchen to interrogate Di Renjie, Renjie immediately said: "Zhou Jianguo, everything is new, I am an old minister of the Tang Dynasty, and the conspiracy is real." Renjie admitted the crime of conspiracy without receiving a sentence, so the prison guards no longer took strict precautions against him, and all he waited for was "reporting to prison". As soon as the guard relaxed, Ren Jie immediately took the opportunity to tear a piece of silk cloth from his clothes and write a statement of grievance, which was hidden in the cotton-padded clothes he was wearing. Then he handed the cotton-padded clothes to the warder and said, "It's hot in the sky, please tell the family to go to the cotton-padded clothes. When Wu heard the report, he immediately summoned Renjie and asked: "There is no counter-attack, why is the counter-attack true?" Renjie replied: "If you don't admit it, you will be tortured by flogging." So Wu ordered the people involved in Renjie's case to be released from death, or demoted to local officials, or exiled to the border. Although Di Renjie was spared his death, he was demoted from the prime minister of one dynasty to the magistrate of Pengze County.
In October of the first year of Wushi's reign (696), the Khitan army fell into Jizhou, and Hebei was shaken. Both the government and the public were shocked. Wu Zetian used Di Renjie as the governor of Weizhou to defend the north and resist the Khitan. After Renjie took office, he collected the hearts of the people and learned that the farmers who were forced to enter the city to guard returned to their homes. I opposed the strategy of being beaten by the predecessors who drove people into the city, repaired the garrison and trapped the zombies themselves. In a short time, the army and the people were excited, and the people were happy. Qidan led his troops to attack and found that the situation was not good, so he led his troops back to the north to make Weizhou defend itself without fighting. When Wu Zetian heard that Renjie was bloodless and Qidan retreated, she promoted Renjie to the governor of Youzhou, gave him purple robe and tortoise belt, and wrote 12 golden characters on the purple robe, "applying political skills, keeping clear and diligent, promoting the position of the minister, encouraging the minister", to show her recognition. In October of the next year, Diao Renjie returned to the court and became a servant of Luantai at the beginning. He was promoted to the office of Prime Minister of Luantai in Tongfeng Pavilion.
The abolition of the crown prince is a national event of every feudal dynasty in China. In the first year of the Holy Calendar (698), Wu Sansi and Wu Chengsi, the nephews of Wu Zetian, made people lobby for Wu Shi several times to become the crown prince. Renjie always knew the heart of the "two martial arts", so he put the future of the country first and stopped them. He knew the Wu family with emotion and moved with reason, He even admonished: "You are the head of state, I am the prime minister, and the establishment of the prince is the foundation of the country, can't you not predict?" He also advised Wu Zetian with traditional human relations, saying: "What is the relationship between your nephew and your mother and son? If your majesty establishes Luling king, you will always enjoy the temple forever; and if you want to establish your nephew, you have never heard that your nephew is the son of heaven, and your aunt is also in the temple?" Di Renjie's heartfelt advice finally made Wu understand and called Li Xian, the Luling worker, to return to the palace and become the prince. It shattered the dream of "Erwu" to be the prince and prevented a disturbance.
In her later years, Wu Zetian became increasingly foolish and extravagant, but she trusted Di Renjie more and more. In the first year (700 years), Renjie was promoted as an internal history. In the summer of that year, with a huge amount of money, he asked the Buddhist monk to make the medicine for his immortality; In autumn, I want to worship Buddhism as the national religion and prepare to build a large Buddha statue and a huge temple. Di Renjie put the rise and fall of the country at the top of his mind, and knelt before the horse to remonstrate: "In the view of Buddha, the god of barbarians is not enough to subdue the lord", "The Tathagata set up the religion, which is based on mercy, and the work must be done by others. Nowadays, the border is not peaceful, if it costs money and manpower, how can it be saved if there is difficulty in a corner?" Wu Shi followed them one by one and dismissed them all. Empress Wu Zetian often called Renjie "the old man". "Renjie is good and leads the court to fight, and the empress dowager always follows it". Renjie has also retired in old age many times, but Zetian never allowed it. When Renjie saw each other, he "stopped worshipping" and said, "Every time I saw the public worship, I also felt pain." In autumn and September of this year, Di Renjie died of illness at the age of 71. Empress Wu was extremely sad and sighed: "The court is empty!" "It's too early for the day to seize our country!" So she gave Renjie the right minister of Wenchang and announced the abolition of the court for three days to show her condolences. When Tang Ruizong was arrested, he pursued Ren Jie as the Duke of Liang.
Di Renjie, a young official, died at an old age and served the Tang Dynasty for decades. As a politician in the feudal era, he was loyal to the royal family and devoted his life to the Li and Wu families; He is diligent in his official duties, attaches great importance to the people, and has achieved outstanding political achievements in dealing with each place; He is upright and upright, dares to stand up to his own views, and is popular with the world; He has courage and wisdom, and does not bend to the evil forces to make known to future generations; He has the foresight and sagacity to inherit the governance of Zhenguan and Kaiyuan, and to assist Wu Zetian in setting up the merit of cherishing history. His historical achievements will be known to future generations.
Nanwu Master Sakyamuni Buddha. Namo Amitabha. There is no Oriental Glazed Medicine Master Buddha in the south.
Nanwu Guanyin Bodhisattva. Nanwudi Tibetan King Bodhisattva. Nanwukong hides Bodhisattva.
Blessed life is limitless. Yuanshi Tianzun. Lingbao senior. The moral supremacy.
Taiyi saved the bitter god. Confucius, the supreme teacher of Dacheng. Jesus Christ. Mohammed.
All Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of the three generations in ten directions.
All immortals in the three realms and ten directions.
All sages at all times and in all countries.
Don't do any evil, and do all good. Persistence and responsiveness.
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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5How to read the Dizang Sutra: Methods for reciting Dizang Sutra (complete version)
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