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 Interpretation of Zhuge Liang's Art of War. General's Court and the Forty-third Man


   date:2020-09-18 19:02:59     read:24   

Interpretation of Zhuge Liang's Art of War. General's Court and the Forty-third Man

The forty-third

——Harmony is the foundation of victory in war

The way to use military force is to make peace with others, and to make peace with others is to fight without persuasion. If you guess the officials, the soldiers are not convinced, the loyalty is not needed, the group is slandered, the slander and the evil are mutually generated, and although you have the wisdom of soup and martial arts, you can't win over the others, let alone everyone?

translation

When the general leads the battle, he should pay attention to the coordination and unity between the officers and soldiers in the army, between the officers and soldiers, and between the soldiers and soldiers. If this is achieved, his subordinates will actively make every effort to charge and kill the enemy. If people are suspicious, distrust each other, strategic people are not valued, soldiers are talking behind their backs, and slander and evil ideas grow rapidly, then even the wisdom of Shang Tang and King Wu of Zhou can not defeat ordinary mediocre people, let alone a large number of enemy troops?

analysis

This article discusses the fundamental problem of generals leading the army - military morale. Emphasize the importance of winning the hearts of the army, keeping the whole army united. The article discusses the truth that "the way to use force is to make peace with people" from both positive and negative aspects, and emphasizes that without peace, even if the generals themselves have the wisdom of Lord Shang and King Wu of Zhou, they cannot defeat the ordinary people. This article is different from the previous discussion on the issue of military morale. It focuses on the importance of the issue of military morale in a very thorough and prominent way, which is enough to attract the attention of the general.

Extension example

Ah Chai breaks the arrow to warn my nephew

During the Northern Wei Dynasty, Akai, the chief of the Tuyuhun tribe, was seriously ill. Knowing that the last day of his life was approaching, he began to arrange various government affairs. Ah Chai has 20 sons, almost all of whom are brave and brave. What Ah Chai was worried about was that after his death, his sons would lose control and fight with each other. If Tuyuhun is divided, the whole kingdom will not be far from extinction.

Before his death, Ah Chai summoned his brothers and nephews to his side. He asked each of his 20 sons to give an arrow. First, take out one of them and give it to his brother Muriyan to break it. Muriyan broke easily when he folded it. But I don't understand my brother's intention. Achain combined the remaining 19 arrows into a bundle and gave them to Muriyan. Muriyan tried his best, but could not break them. People still don't understand Ah Chai's intentions.

Ah Chai pointed at these arrows and said to the people with a serious heart, "Do you know the truth? One branch is easy to break, and 19 branches are hard to destroy when combined. If the kingdom is divided, it is easy to fail by individual strength alone. Only when all of us work together and rely on the strength of all, can the country maintain long-term peace and stability." Ah Chai supported and died after saying this.

Jia Yi, a politician of the Western Han Dynasty, said in his "On Passing the Qin Dynasty", "Those who destroy the six countries are also the six countries, not the Qin Dynasty." When united, the weak countries can compete with the powerful enemy countries. If they fight independently, they will lose their original advantages. This is a profound lesson from history. A Chai is a wise monarch. He knows that the harmony between his nephew and nephew is directly related to the survival of the country. The way he explained this is very ingenious. He first asked his brother to break the arrow, so that the audience could have a direct and superficial understanding of the difficulty, and then changed the topic, by which he earnestly warned, both figurative and persuasive.

 解读《诸葛亮兵法.将苑》 和人第四十

 

和人第四十三

——人和是战争胜利之本

 


 

 

   夫用兵之道,在于人和,人和则不劝而自战矣。若将吏相猜,士卒不服,忠谋不用,群下谤议,谗慝互生,虽有汤、武之智而不能取胜于匹夫,况众人乎?

 

译文

  将帅领兵作战,要注意使部队内部官兵之间、官官之间、兵兵之间和协、团结、作到了这一点,部下会主动地竭尽全力冲锋杀敌。如果上下猜忌,互不信任,有谋略的人得不到重用,士卒在背后议论纷纷,谗言与恶念滋生迅速,那么就是有商汤、周武王那样的智慧,也不能打败一般的庸人,更何况是人数众多的敌军呢?

  解析

  本篇文章论述将领带兵的根本问题——军心。强调得军心,上下同心,全军一致的重要性。文章从正反两方面深入论述了“用兵之道,在于人和”的道理,强调没有人和,即使将领本人有商汤主和周武王那样的智谋,也是无法战胜寻常百姓的。这篇文章和前面论述军心问题不同,它集中力量把得军心问题的重要性论述得十分透彻、突出,足以引起将领重视。

  拓例

  阿柴折箭诫子侄
  北魏时期,吐谷浑部落酋长阿柴病重。他自知生命的最后时日已经迫近,便开始安排各项政务。阿柴有20个儿子,几乎个个英武骁勇。阿柴所担心的,就是怕自己死后,儿子们失去制约,相互争斗。如果吐谷浑内部一旦四分五裂,整个王国也就离灭亡不远了。
  临终前,阿柴将自己的弟弟、子侄们召到身边。他让20个儿子每人献出1支箭来。先取出其中的1枝,交给弟弟慕利延,让他折断它。慕利延随手一折,很轻松地就折断了。心里却不明白哥哥的用意。阿柴又将其余19枝箭合成1束,交给慕利延。慕利延费尽全身的力气,却无法折断它们。众人还是不解阿柴的用心。
  阿柴指着这些箭,语重心长地对众人说:“你们知道其中的道理吗?1枝容易折断,19枝的力量合起来,就难以摧毁,如果分裂王国,单凭个人的力量就容易失败,只有大家戮力同心,靠着众人的力量,国家才能长治久安。”阿柴支撑着说完这番话,就死去了。
  西汉政治家贾谊在他的《过秦论》中说:“灭六国者六国也,非秦也。”团结一致的时候,小弱的国家可以和强大的敌国抗衡,各自为战,便会失去原有的优势。这是历史留给后人的深刻教训。阿柴是一位明智的君主,他知道子侄之间的和睦与否,直接关系到社稷的存亡。而他说明这层道理的方式,十分巧妙。他先让弟弟折箭,让在场众人对此中的难易有一个直接的、浅显的认识,然后话题一转,借此谆谆告诫,既形象,又有说服力。

(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)

Introduction to Zhuge Changqing: Zhuge Changqing, the inheritor and promoter of traditional Chinese culture, is willing to "learn from sages, promote virtue, revitalize China and benefit the world" together with people with the same ideals in the world.

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 (本文是诸葛长青原创文章,图片选自网络。欢迎转发,转发引用请注明出处)

 

诸葛长青简介:诸葛长青,中国国学传统文化传承弘扬者,愿与天下志同道合者一起学习圣贤、弘扬善德、振兴中华、造福世界

 

 

 

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That is to say, with this merit and virtue, we should solemnly observe the Buddha's net ten. Report four blessings and save three hardships. Those who wish to see and hear,Know and send Bodhi Heart. To live in a state of bliss

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