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 Interpretation of "Zhuge Liang's Art of War. General Yuan"


   date:2020-09-18 19:03:51     read:47   

Interpretation of "Zhuge Liang's Art of War. General Yuan"

The 34th

——Knowing oneself and the enemy is the foundation of victory in war

In ancient times, those who are good at military use predicted their victory or defeat based on their abilities. Who is holy? Who will be the best? Who can be an official? Which is more generous? Who can train soldiers? Which is the best military appearance? Which is the best way to fight? Which situation is dangerous? Which of the guests is wise? Who is afraid of neighboring countries? Who has more money? Who is safe for the people? From this point of view, the shape of strength can be determined.

translation

In ancient times, generals who were good at military use were able to guess who won and who lost according to various conditions. The general needs to know when predicting the outcome of the victory and defeat: which of the two monarchs is more sage? Which of the generals on both sides is more wise and capable? Which of the officials on both sides is more capable? Which side of the two sides has more food and grass? Which side of the two sides has well-trained soldiers? Which of the two sides is more strict? Which side of the horses on both sides runs fast? Which side of the two sides occupies the more dangerous terrain? Which side of the staff is more scheming? What are the neighbors that both sides can fear? Which side of the two sides is more powerful? Which side of the people's life is more stable? By comparing the above aspects, it is easier to judge who is strong or weak and who wins or loses.

analysis

This article discusses the problem of knowing one's self and the other. This is the basic issue of command in the face of war that our military strategists attach great importance to. Sun Tzu's art of war also has the famous saying "know yourself and your enemy, and you will not be defeated in a hundred battles". Zhuge Liang stressed that before the war, we should thoroughly analyze the balance of forces between the enemy and ourselves, and not fight a war of uncertainty. This once again shows Zhuge Liang's guiding ideology of cautious military use.

Extension example

Zhuge Liang sent troops from both sides

During the Three Kingdoms Period, after Cao Cao murdered Ma Teng, he wanted to attack the Eastern Wu when Zhou Yu died. At this time, Liu Bei was actively preparing to attack Xichuan. Cao Cao believed that it was impossible to attack the Eastern Wu and prevent Liu Bei from expanding his influence. On the other hand, if Liu Bei is allowed to enter Sichuan, there is also a positive side, which can put Sun Quan in a helpless position. So they decided to raise troops to attack Wu. Sun Quan was shocked at the news and asked Liu Bei for help. Liu Bei and Zhuge Liang carefully analyzed the situation at that time and believed that if Sun Quan was destroyed, Liu Bei would become a more lonely force. If you help Sun Quan, you will lose the good opportunity to enter Xichuan. After careful consideration, Zhuge Liang believed that there was no need to use the troops of Jiangnan and Jingzhou, and Cao Cao would not really raise troops in the Eastern Wu. Just repair a letter to Ma Chao. Zhuge Liang thought that Cao Cao had killed Ma Teng; His son Ma Chao must have the heart of revenge. At this time, if he said that he was friendly with Ma Chao, Ma Chao would be more relieved to consider attacking Cao Cao. Sure enough, after seeing Liu Bei's letter, Ma Chao immediately decided to attack Cao Cao, and then went down to Chang'an and Tongguan. When Cao Yu learned that Ma Chao entered the customs from the west, he had to lead his army to turn away from Dongwu and look at Ma Chao.

This example fully shows that Zhuge Liang found a solution to change the dilemma into a win-win situation based on the interdependence and mutual restriction of the forces of several parties at that time.

 解读《诸葛亮兵法.将苑》 揣能第三十四

 

揣能第三十四

——知己知彼是战争胜利之本

 


   

  古之善用兵者,揣其能而料其胜负。主孰圣也?将孰贤也?吏孰能也?粮饷孰丰也?士卒孰练也?军容孰整也?戎马孰逸也?形势孰险也?宾客孰智也?邻国孰惧也?财货孰多也?百姓孰安也?由此观之,强弱之形,可以决矣。

 

译文

  古代善于用兵的将领,能够根据各方面的条件而揣测谁胜谁负。将帅在预料胜负的结果时需要了解的内容有:双方的君主哪一个比较圣明?双方的将领哪一个更为贤明有能力?双方的官吏哪一方更有能力?双方哪一方的粮草更为充足?双方中哪一方的士兵训练有素?双方的军容哪一方更为严整?双方的战马哪一方跑的快?双方哪一方占据的地势更为险要?双方哪一方的幕僚更有计谋?双方各有哪些可以畏惧的邻国?双方哪一方的国力更富有?双方哪一方的百姓生活更安定?通过比较上述几个方面,双方谁强谁弱,谁胜谁负就可以比较容易地做出判断了。

  解析

  本篇文章论述了知已知彼的问题。这是我国军事家们都十分重视的临战指挥的基本问题,孙子兵法也有“知己知彼,百战不殆”的名言。诸葛亮十分强调开战之前深入分析敌我力量对比,不打无把握之仗。这再一次显示了诸葛亮谨慎用兵的指导思想。

  拓例

  诸葛亮两全遣兵
  三国时期,曹操谋杀马腾之后,又想趁周瑜新死之际进攻东吴。而这时刘备正在积极准备攻取西川。曹操认为既攻东吴又防止刘备的势力扩大,似不可能。另一方面如果放纵刘备入川,也有有利的一面,可使孙权处于无援的地位。于是决定举兵攻吴。孙权得到消息大惊,忙向刘备求救。刘备、诸葛亮认真分析当时形势,认为如果孙权被灭刘备则成为更孤单的力量。如果援助孙权,则失去进兵西川的好时机。诸葛亮经过认真思考,他认为不动用江南之兵,也不必动用荆州之兵,曹操不会真的举兵东吴。只要修书一封给马超即可。原来诸葛亮想到,曹操杀了马腾;其子马超必有报仇之心。这时如果表示与马超结好,马超必定更加放心地考虑攻打曹操。果然,马超见到刘备的书信后,马上决定攻打曹操,并连下长安、潼关。曹澡得知马超由西入关,只好率军调头舍东吴而顾马超。
  这一实例充分说明诸葛亮根据当时几方力量的相互依赖,相互制约的关系,找到了变两难为两全的对策。

(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)

Introduction to Zhuge Changqing: Zhuge Changqing, the inheritor and promoter of traditional Chinese culture, is willing to "learn from sages, promote virtue, revitalize China and benefit the world" together with people with the same ideals in the world.

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诸葛长青简介:诸葛长青,中国国学传统文化传承弘扬者,愿与天下志同道合者一起学习圣贤、弘扬善德、振兴中华、造福世界

 

 

 

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That is to say, with this merit and virtue, we should solemnly observe the Buddha's net ten. Report four blessings and save three hardships. Those who wish to see and hear,Know and send Bodhi Heart. To live in a state of bliss

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