Interpretation of General Commandment No. 16 in Zhuge Liang's Art of War. General Court
The sixteenth commandment
——To win popular support
The book said: "To insult a gentleman is to lose heart; to insult a villain is to lose heart." It is important to keep the heart of a hero in the army, to be strict with rewards and punishment, to be civil and military, and to be firm and soft. When it comes to etiquette and music, we should focus on "poetry" and "book", first benevolence and then wisdom and courage; It is as quiet as a submerged fish, as moving as a running otter, as lost as it is connected with, as strong as it is broken, with banners, as golden drums, as backward as moving mountains, as forward as wind and rain, as collapse as destruction, and as cooperative as a tiger; Forced but tolerant, lured by profit, taken in disorder, humble and arrogant, close and separated, strong and weak; Those who are in danger will be safe, those who are afraid will be happy, those who are rebellious will cherish it, those who are wronged will apply for it, those who are strong will restrain it, those who are weak will help it, those who are scheming will kiss it, those who are slandered will cover it, and those who are rich will share it; Do not double the strength of the army to attack the weak, do not rely on the masses to belittle the enemy, do not be proud to be proud of it, do not be proud to be arrogant; Plan first and then move, and start the war after knowing the victory; Don't treasure your wealth or use your children. If we can do this, Yan Shou will apply for orders, and people are willing to fight, then the soldiers will join together and the people will be happy to die.
The Book of History said: "If you humiliate a gentleman, you can't get his sincerity, despise the villains, and make them do their best to serve themselves". Therefore, the key to the commander's leadership is to widely win the hearts of heroes and ambitious people, strictly enforce the rules and disciplines related to reward and punishment, have the ability of both arts and martial arts, be both hard and soft, and be proficient in etiquette, music, poetry, and books, so that you can cultivate benevolence and righteousness first, and then achieve wisdom and courage; When commanding the soldiers to take a rest, they should make no noise like swimming fish diving. When commanding the soldiers to attack, they should make the soldiers jump and run like running otters, fast and fierce, disrupt the enemy's camp, cut off the enemy's contact, weaken the enemy's power, wave flags to show their power, and let the soldiers obey the command and obey the deployment. When withdrawing troops, they should be as stable and orderly as the movement of mountains, When entering the army, you should be as fast as the wind and rain, completely destroy the defeated army, and take out the fierce force like a tiger when fighting with the enemy; In dealing with the enemy, we should also take some strategies: in the face of emergencies, we should find ways to be calm, use small favors to lure the enemy into the set trap, try our best to disrupt the enemy's stable and orderly position, and then win in the chaos. For the cautious enemy, we should use strategies to make him blind and proud, up and down, use separation techniques to disrupt the internal unity of the enemy, and try our best to weaken his strength against the extremely powerful enemy, We should make the enemy in danger feel tranquil to paralyze the enemy, make the worried enemy feel happy, and make the enemy neglect; The prisoners of war who have been sent to our army should be treated with a gentle policy. We should make the grievances of our subordinates have a place to complain, support the weak, and restrain the arrogant subordinates. We should try our best to get close to the wise subordinates and use him as the staff. We should resolutely crack down on the clever and charming villains, and distribute the spoils to the subordinates first; In addition, we should also pay attention to the following points: if the enemy is weak, we don't have to attack him with all our strength, we can't ignore the enemy because our army is strong, we can't be arrogant because our ability is strong, and we can't go to the subordinates to bully because we are spoiled; For the conduct of the whole war, it is necessary to make a detailed plan first. Only with complete assurance can we lead the troops to go out. We do not enjoy the property and cloth captured on the battlefield alone, nor do the captured men and women work alone. As a general, if he meets these requirements and strictly commands, he will definitely fight actively and serve in the battle.
This article discusses the issue of "treating people's minds" and "exhausting manpower", which captures the essence of military management. The article uses "the essence of military action and the heart of heroes" to highlight the importance of "winning the hearts of the people". It can be said that winning the hearts of the people is a well-known truth, but not everyone can do it. How to do it? Zhuge Liang put forward five items, namely, "strict rewards and punishment, general civil and martial arts, hard and soft exercise, speaking of etiquette and music, and benevolence and justice first", which are all crucial and the fundamental way to achieve "winning the hearts of the people".
Then, the author states in one breath 25 ways of advancing and retreating, and the way to overcome the enemy and win, that is, the specific tactics of "making every effort" to win. These twenty-five tactics, which cover both the tactics of advancing and retreating, as well as the tactics of disintegrating the enemy and uniting allies, are very detailed and exquisite. Any general should bear in mind. Then, the author lists six taboos to further enrich the discussion from the negative side. As the author finally concluded, if a general can do what he said, he can command the army freely, and everyone under him is willing to serve. Why worry about winning! From this discussion, we can see that Zhuge Liang has deep research on strategy and tactics. It is really unique.
Make three rules to win the hearts of the people
In August 207 BC, Liu Bang, the great ancestor of the Han Dynasty, led his troops into the Wuguan Pass. With the cooperation of the counselor Zhang Liang and the military general Zhou Bo, he quickly broke through the main force of the Qin army and killed the Qin soldiers who were guarding the pass.
Then the troops took advantage of the victory and marched forward, and soon captured the capital city of Xianyang.
While Liu Bang was leading his troops into the city, he saw a funeral procession in front of him. When he came closer, it turned out that Prince Qin Ying came to surrender with his ministers. Zi Ying held the crown in his hand and wore two feet of white silk around his neck, indicating that he was ready to commit suicide after surrender. Liu Bang and his soldiers hated the humble king of Qin.
Liu Bang entered the city capital and came to the Palace of Arfangs. He clapped his hands when he saw the magnificence and magnificence of the palace. He said, "I will live in this time and enjoy myself." General Fan Kuai advised him to leave here as soon as possible. He was very unhappy and ignored Fan Kuai.
Fan Kuai, seeing that Liu Bang did not listen to his advice, withdrew bitterly and went to find the counselor Zhang Liang to persuade him again.
Zhang Liang is resourceful and able to speak good words. He helped Liu Bang to set the world and devise strategies. Every time, he was obedient.
Zhang Liang met Liu Bang and said, "The king of Qin is unruly and the world is in chaos. It is these extravagant things that killed Qin. You are fighting for the people, not here for pleasure. If you are the same, what is the difference between you and the king of Qin?" Zhang Liang's words made Liu Bang have a change of heart, but still reluctantly swallowed the dragon bed slowly.
In order to win the hearts and minds of the people, Liu Bang immediately summoned the elders and gentry of all counties, Announce to them: "You have suffered from the tyranny of the Qin Dynasty for a long time. If you have any accusations, you will be destroyed. These laws and regulations of the Qin Dynasty are used to crush the people. From today on, I will make three rules: first, pay for the death of killing people. Second, hurt people will be punished. Third, steal and rob people will be punished. In addition to these three rules, other laws and prohibitions will be abolished."
The elders and gentry in all counties were extremely happy to hear that. Local people took out their own wine and meat to entertain Liu Bang and the Rebellion. Since then, Liu Bang's prestige has been higher.
狎 xia 獭ta
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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