Interpretation of the 15th chapter of "Zhuge Liang's Art of War. General Court"
——"Subdue the enemy without fighting"
In ancient times, those who are good at reasoning don't learn, those who are good at teaching don't fight, those who are good at fighting don't lose, and those who are good at losing don't die. In the past, the governance of sages was to live in peace, enjoy their careers, and never attack each other until they were old. If Shun revised the "Code of Punishment" and Gui You wrote the "Scholar's Teacher", there would be no punishment to be imposed if people did not obey the order. If Yu attacked the Miao people, Shun danced the dry feathers and the Miao people were qualified, it could be said that those who were good at fighting would not fight. If Qi Huannan is strong in Chu and the north is strong in Shanrong, it can be said that those who are good at fighting are invincible. If Chu Zhao is in trouble, he runs to Qin to ask for help, and he can return to the country, it can be said that the good loser will not die.
In ancient times, those who were good at governing the country did not use the army, did not rely on force, and those who were good at using strategy did not rely on non-formation. Those who were good at arranging the formation did not rely on combat. Only those who were good at fighting could remain invincible. Those who are good at summarizing the lessons of failure and working hard will not be destroyed by the enemy. Just as in ancient times, sages ruled the world mainly to make people live in peace, work hard, live and work in peace and contentment, and never attack each other in old age, which is the meaning of "being good at governance without relying on the army and force" mentioned above. Another example is that Shun revised the penal code and made the minister Gao Tao an official in charge of the criminal law, but no one offended the laws and regulations, so the criminal law has nowhere to be applied. This is the meaning of "being good at using force, but not going out of line". Again, like the Miao people who were attacked by Dayu, Shun conquered the Miao people with the dry shield and feather fan for dancing, which means "those who are good at arranging the formation do not need force". Another example is that Duke Huan of Qi was brave and good at fighting and invincible in the process of attacking the State of Chu in the south and Shanrong in the north. When the State of Chu was invaded by the State of Wu, the King of Chu immediately fled to the State of Qin for help, finally defeated the Wu army and returned to his own country, which means that "only when you are good at dealing with defeat can you turn defeat into victory and not perish".
This article puts forward the highest command art of leading the war: "Those who are good at management do not division, those who are good at division do not array, those who are good at array do not fight, those who are good at war do not lose, and those who are good at defeat do not perish." This is the same line with the idea of "subduing the army without war" pursued by military celebrities of all dynasties in China. It is the perfect state of leading the army that people deliberately pursue. There are few politicians and military strategists who can achieve this goal in history. The examples of Yao, Shun, Yu, Qi and Chu cited by Zhuge Liang as arguments are created by sages in ancient Chinese history, which is not what ordinary emperors and generals can do.
Zhuge Liang plans to retreat
In August of the first year of Jianxing, Sima Yi sent troops to attack Xichuan in five ways: the first way was to send envoys to bribe the King of Xianbei and let him send 100000 Qiang troops to attack Xiping Pass; In the second way, the envoy was sent to award Meng Huo, the king of the Southern Barbarians, to send 100000 troops to attack Yizhou, Yongchang and other four counties from the south; The third way was to send envoys to repair the Soochow, grant them the land, and let Sun Quan send 100000 troops to attack the gorge and take Fucheng; In the fourth way, Meng Da, the general, was ordered to send 100000 soldiers to attack Hanzhong; In the fifth way, the commander of the army, Cao Zhen, was appointed to be the governor of Dadu, leading 100000 troops to attack Yangping Pass and take Xichuan. The five-way army, a total of 500000, went forward in parallel, making Zhuge Liang unable to save and resist. Someone reported to the empress that the five armies of the Wei army came to Xichuan and reported to the prime minister. For some reason, the prime minister did not come out to take care of affairs for several days. Later, the Lord hurriedly sent people to summon Zhuge Liang to enter the court, but said that the prime minister was ill and could not come out. The next day, the officials waited in front of the Prime Minister's Mansion for a whole day, but still did not come out. Du Qiong enters, and asks the queen to come in person. After driving to the gate of the Prime Minister's Mansion, I saw Zhuge Liang alone, leaning on a bamboo stick, watching fish by the pool.
After standing behind Zhuge Liang for a long time, the Later Lord slowly said, "Is the Prime Minister all right?" The Later Lord asked Wei Bing about his invasion. Zhuge Liang laughed, helped the rear lord to sit down in the inner room, and said, "How can I not know when the fifth route soldier arrived? I am not looking at fish, but thinking about something. Now the fourth route soldier has been dismissed by me, only Sun Quan has gone all the way, and I have a way to withdraw. But I haven't found a suitable envoy yet, so I'm thinking about it. What is your majesty to worry about?" The rear lord was surprised and pleased. Recipient, Zhuge Liang added: "The Emperor Xiandi entrusted his majesty to me, and I dare not neglect it at all. But how can I reveal it to others? Ma Chao is considered by the Qiang people to be a divine general. I have sent someone to let him hold the Xiping Pass and ambush four strange soldiers. There is no need to worry about this way. I ordered Wei Yan to take an army south and lay out a plan of suspicious soldiers. The barbarians are suspicious and will not dare to enter. There is no need to worry about this way. Li Yan and Meng Da have a close relationship When I returned to Chengdu, I had written a letter and sent it to Meng Da as Li Yan's personal letter. Meng Da was bound to stay ill. There was no need to worry about it all the way. The terrain of Yangping Pass is precipitous. I ordered Zhao Yunjian not to defend it. Cao Zhen could not break it and would soon withdraw. Don't worry about the fourth route. I also secretly assigned Guan Xing and Zhang Bao to lead 30000 soldiers and stationed them in critical places as a means of rescue to protect the people. I didn't move these people through Chengdu, so nobody knew. Cao Pi had violated the Eastern Wu Dynasty. Sun Quan would not send troops easily. He would only send troops if the four routes won. Now we need to send an eloquent envoy to Soochow. Chen said that he had a stake and withdrew from Soochow first. I haven't found the right person yet, so I'm still thinking. Why do you have to come to work? " Later, Zhuge Liang sent Deng Zhi to Soochow to make peace with Soochow. The Five Route Army retreats without fighting.
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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Selected Articles in Previous Periods
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