What is Zhuge's "Eight Arrays"
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The oriental dragon gallops around the world!
The "Eight Arrays" created by Zhuge Liang absorbed the arrangement and combination of minefield and Taoist Eight Diagrams, compatible with astronomy and geography, and was a rare battle array in ancient times. Zhuge's Genealogy of the Cautious Hall contains a poem praising the "Eight Arrays", which is composed of eight formations with excellent skills and famous names. Many domestic experts have conducted in-depth research on this issue.
So what is the eight array diagram?
The "eight arrays" are the sky covering array, the ground carrying array, the wind flying array, the cloud hanging array, the dragon flying array, the tiger wing array, the bird flying array, and the snake winding array. The "Eight Formation Diagram" is a military formation created by Zhuge Liang. Its earliest historical records can be traced back to the "Biography of Zhuge Liang" in the "Three Kingdoms Annals of Shu": Liang "deduces the art of war and makes the Eight Formation Diagram". Later, the "Constant Temperature Biography" in the Book of Jin said, "Zhuge Liang made eight formations under the fish belly and flat sand, and the stones were eight elements, and the lines were two zhang away from each other. When you see it, you will call it the Changshan Snake Form. Neither civil nor military can recognize it."
Tianfu Array praises: the array is 16, with the outside and the inside, and the four are windy. Its image is the sky, which is the leader of the array and the first of the soldiers. Make good use of the three armies, and their shape is not biased.
Praise of the earth array: The earth array 12 is square in shape, with four corners dominated by clouds. It is difficult to attack the enemy. Its body is unpredictable, it can be used infinitely, and it cannot be independent. It is matched with Yang.
The wind has no shape. It is attached to the sky and turns into a snake. Its meaning is becoming more and more mysterious. The wind can blow things around, and everything around, and the snake can be around, and the three armies are afraid of it.
Cloud hanging array praise: cloud is attached to the ground, invisible at the beginning, and becomes a flying bird. Its shape is formed, the bird can stand out, the cloud can be obscure, changeable, and the sound of gold leather.
Praise of the Dragon Flying Array: The heaven and earth rush back, and the dragon changes into one, with claws and feet, and back and chest. Hidden is unpredictable, moving is infinite. The formation is impressive, and the elephant is called dragon.
Praise of the Tiger Wing Array: The heaven and earth rush forward and turn into a tiger wing. The tiger will be subdued and will fight. When Huaiyin is used, it becomes infinite. The meeting of Gaixia is unpredictable to Duke Lu.
Bird flying array praise: birds of prey will fight, and will fly first. The potential is close to the sky and the birds are hidden. There will be a lot of slander in the process of trial. The three armies will not be able to deal with a single assault.
Serpent Array Praise: The wind is serpentine, attached to the sky, surrounded by potential energy, with flexible performance. Among the four wonders, the tiger is the neighbor, and then the mountain changes, and the head and tail are trapped.
The composition of the "Eight Arrays" is based on the four places of heaven and earth, which are the positive array of heaven and earth, and the positive array of heaven and earth. The northwest is the dry land, and the dry is the sky array. The southwest is the earth, and the earth is the array. The land in the southeast is Sunda House, and Sunda is the wind array. The land in the northeast is Gen Ju. Gen Ju is a mountain. Clouds come from mountains and rivers. It is a cloud array. Water, fire, gold and wood are the four strange arrays of dragons, tigers, birds and snakes. The array is arranged with the green dragon (array) on the left, the white tiger (array) on the right, the rosefinch bird (array) in the front, and the Yuanwu snake (array) at the back. The virtual general is in it. The eight formations are also distributed in the general formation, which is composed of eight hundred sixty-four formations, plus 24 formations of wandering soldiers. The total array includes 32 yin and yang, 24 yang and 24 yin. There are 24 parading formations. After the 60 formations, all the marching, formation, joint battle, setting doubts, filling gaps, and logistics are in the parading. There are praises praising the incomparable power of the "Eight Array Diagram": "The array and the team are contained in the array; the former is the rear, and the latter is the front; there is no rush in and there is no sharp move in and out; there are four heads and eight tails, and the contact is the first; the enemy rushes into the middle, and both ends are saved; the strange and positive are mutually generated, and there is no end in the circle; the head and the tail are corresponding, and the hidden is unpredictable; the anticipation is divine, and the contingency is contingent." "The method of eight arrays is that two arrays follow each other in a while, one battle and one defense; the importance of China and foreign countries, the hardness and softness of each other, the emptiness and reality of each other, the host and guest in succession, the longitude and latitude change, precisely because of the foundation, the odd reason for the sudden advance, the multiple reasons for the interaction, and the logistics guarantee."
1. Formation and principles of the eight formations.
The eighth formation is the group square formation. From the formation of the formation, each of the eight formations has eight directions. Each direction has a middle array. The whole array has eight directions, and there are eight middle arrays, which are sky, earth, wind, cloud, dragon, tiger, bird and snake. The so-called "scattered into eight, and complex into one" means that they are divided into eight middle formations, and together they are a big formation. At the center of the eight formations is the general and Yu Qizhi's soldiers directly under his command. "If the center is zero, the general will hold it.". In Tang Li Wen Pai, there is a saying that "there are nine in the number of formations", so the center of the eight formations can also be regarded as a middle formation, so the Song Dynasty also called the eight formations the nine army formations.
Each middle formation is usually divided into six small formations, and the central formation is divided into sixteen small formations. The whole eight formations have sixty-four small formations. After the big square formation, there may be 24 small formations of wandering horses, which are composed of 88 small formations. Some people speculate that the formation of the riders is to group two small formations into one group, and group three groups into one, a total of four and twelve groups. In order to delay the enemy's attack when defending, obstacles such as rush cars and antlers were also set at the periphery of the Eighth Formation.
During the formation, the deployment of forces in the array follows the following three principles:
First, inclusiveness and symmetry. There is an inclusive relationship among the large, medium and small arrays of the eight arrays. The large array is formed by the middle array, and the middle array is formed by the small array. From the perspective of the whole array, "the array is contained between the arrays", "the large array includes the small array". In the structure of the formation, the balance between the two sides is maintained, forming a state of "corner fall and hook, twists and turns are opposite" (the corners of the formation are connected and echo with each other, and each bend is opposite to each other). The left and right formations and the first and second schools mentioned in Zhuge Liang's Military Order are the performance of the formation match.
Second, it is Sino-foreign peace and separation. In terms of force allocation, the eight formations are divided into Chinese and foreign ones, that is, the central and peripheral ones. Its main forces are deployed on the periphery; With few but fine forces deployed in the center, a force deployment is formed, which is thick and thin outside, heavy outside and light inside, solid outside and virtual inside. "The method of the eight arrays is also the method of emptiness, and the array from five to one is empty.". Pay attention to clutch when configuring positions. In the position, there are often terrain obstacles such as mounds, ditches, and trees, so we should pay attention to separation, and deploy their forces dispersedly to avoid obstacles; It also pays attention to coordination. After decentralized deployment, it can quickly combine operations under unified command.
Third, it is Qizheng. At the time of formation, the troops are divided into regular troops (conventional combat forces) and odd troops (unconventional combat forces). When distinguishing odd and positive, the eight middle arrays are divided into "four are positive and four are odd". In the deployment of Qizheng, "one is for each and the other is for each." In addition to the eight middle formations, there are also "odd" soldiers, namely the soldiers directly under the Central General.
2. The maneuver method of the eight formations.
After the formation of the eight formations, the direction can be adjusted at any time according to the change of the enemy's operational direction. Because of the symmetry of the formation, as long as the front is changed to the rear, the rear is changed to the front; Or the left part is changed to the right part, and the right part is changed to the left part, so you can turn around and move flexibly. However, due to the huge and complex formation, in order to keep it in order, it is not allowed to run fast when moving forward, and it is not allowed to run hard when retreating. The maneuvering speed is greatly limited. This is what the eight array pithy formula in "Tang Li Wen Pai" tells us: "before, after, before, there is no speed in advance, and there is no speed in retreat".
3. The fighting method of the eight formations.
The eight arrays have the function of all-around operations, with four positives serving as four heads (flanks), and four oddities and four charges serving as eight tails (reinforcements). When attacked in any direction, the main direction of operations can be deployed without making fundamental changes to form the force configuration of the head, flank and rear of the array. When one place is attacked, the adjacent left and right middle arrays can automatically serve as two wings to attack the attacking enemy. This is the "Four heads and eight tails, the first at the touch, the enemy rushing into it, and both ends are saved" in the General Summary of Continuation of Martial Arts.
4. Use of arms.
The most active and mobile cavalry in the array is the cavalry. "They can save each other head and tail, and change their use endlessly. They are all driven by the cavalry". The method of application is to give them a wide range of tasks, such as side attack, feint attack, ambush, cutting off the enemy's food supply, blocking, night attack, tail attack and marching, camping, and warning during the deployment. At ordinary times, they are lined up in two rows and placed behind the generous array. As the "Military Preparation Annals" says, "action is the first, stop is the last, and war is the impermanence".
The crossbow soldiers in the array, with the cooperation and protection of other forces, make up for the weakness of short self-defence and give play to the advantage of long range shooting. The method of using crossbow soldiers is to emphasize coordination. Zhuge Liang stipulated in the Military Order that when the attacking enemy is blocked in front of the antlers, the crossbow soldiers in the array will stand up and fire, and the spears and halberds will squat forward to fight, and cooperate with each other. The spears and halberds will not stand up and stop, otherwise it will affect the shooting range and hinder the use of crossbows.
By setting up obstacles with vehicles, the vehicle soldiers can delay and cut the impact and mobility of the enemy, provide shelter and protection against the infantry, crossbows and cavalry, and enhance the stability of the defense. Its application is as follows: in the mountain encounter, if the left and right wings of the enemy cavalry come to attack, and our infantry turn from marching to hasty defense, and it is not convenient to climb the mountains, they will use vehicles outside the array to resist the enemy's impact; When the terrain is narrow and difficult to deploy, the vehicles outside the array are arranged in a zigzag shape to defend against the enemy's impact.
5. Formation changes.
In order to adapt to different terrain and enemy conditions, the eight formations must adjust the formation to square, round, curved, straight, sharp and other shapes according to the situation, and adjust the force configuration in the formation to form different formations according to the needs of different stages of operations. For example, when marching, form the formation of sending troops to form an array, when preparing for war, form the formation of gathering troops to wait for the enemy, when defending, form the formation of vanguard to meet the enemy, when pursuing, form the formation of defeating and chasing, and collecting the whole array, and so on.
In a word, Zhuge Liang, aiming at the cavalry advantage of the Wei army, supported by the most advanced quick-fire weapon, Yuanrong, integrated the power of coordinated combat of foot, crossbow, horse and vehicle, and formed eight formations. His eight formations are a group square composed of four positive and four strange formations, which can be separated, combined and changed. The formation is inclusive and symmetrical. It has the ability of quick response and flexible response, with the former being the rear, the later being the front, four heads and eight tails, the contact being the first, the enemy rushing into the middle, and both ends being saved.
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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