Treasure of Wisdom: Interpretation of Zhuge Liang's Art of War
To be a truly great general, one must have five excellent qualities: benevolence, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom and trust, and the basic quality of being both intelligent and brave, and fearless in the face of danger.
Original text: There are nine elements of a general: virtue is the principle of the Tao, courtesy is the principle of Qi, and the knowledge of hunger and cold, and the observation of labor is the principle of benevolence; There is no need to avoid things, no need to make profits, no honor of death, no disgrace of life, which is called the righteous general; Honor without arrogance, win without relying on, be wise and able to go down, and be tough and tolerant. This is called courtesy; Strange changes are unpredictable, actions should be multi-faceted, turn disasters into blessings, and win in the face of danger. This is called wise general; There are generous rewards for entering and severe punishment for retreating. Rewards do not exceed the time limit, and punishment is not expensive; It is light enough to fight, powerful enough to cover thousands of people, good at fixing the battlefield, and good at swords and halberds; Climbing high and taking risks, galloping and shooting like flying, advancing first, and retreating back, which is called riding general; It is called a strong general who is determined to dominate the three armies, is determined to be weak and strong, is timid in small battles, and is brave in big enemies; If you are not as good as the wise, if you follow the advice, you will be as broad as you can be, and brave as you can be.
According to the different abilities of different generals, they can be divided into nine types: First, they can educate their subordinates with their own moral integrity, regulate their actions with etiquette, be prepared for their subordinates, ask for warmth, and share weal and woe with their subordinates. Such generals are benevolent generals. The second is that we can do things not only for the immediate relief of disasters, but also for the long-term plan. We are meticulous, not tempted by interests, and would rather sacrifice for honor than humiliate for survival. Such a general is a righteous general. Third, a general who is in a high position but not domineering, has outstanding achievements but not arrogant, is virtuous but not lofty, and is modest to people who are lower than himself, has a straight personality and can entertain others. Such a general is a gift general. Fourth, the use of tactics is unpredictable and resourceful. In adversity, you can turn misfortune into good fortune. In the face of danger, you know how to turn misfortune into good fortune. Such a general is a wise general. The fifth is loyalty and faithfulness. Reward those who have done meritorious deeds and punish those who have done wrong severely. Reward and punishment are clear. Reward without delay and punishment regardless of the status of the other party. Such a general is a trusted general. Sixth, he is nimble, as fast as a horse when rushing into the battle, with a heroic spirit, capable of winning thousands of men, good at defending the country, and good at sword and halberd. Such a general is a footman. The seventh is to be able to climb mountains, take risks, gallop like the wind, take the lead, and be unstoppable. When retreating, the commander can resist the enemy soldiers and cover others. Such a general is a cavalry commander. Eighth, the three armies are invincible. They are cautious and careless in small battles, and are more and more brave in the face of strong enemies. Such generals are powerful generals. The ninth is to meet a wise man with an open mind to ask for advice, to listen to others' opinions like a stream of advice, to be broad-minded, to be lenient and upright, to be brave and decisive, and to be resourceful. Such a general is a great general.
Analysis: This article puts forward the quality cultivation that a general should have, that is to say, points out the moral qualities and talents that must be possessed to become an excellent general. The author put forward a total of nine articles, explaining the content and requirements one by one, which are very specific. These nine requirements can be summarized into two aspects, namely, "virtue" and "talent". There are six requirements for the cultivation of moral quality put forward by the author. In short, they are benevolence, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom, faith, and the proper mind and cultivation of a "general"; In terms of military ability, there are three requirements. The leaders should be proficient in martial arts, have excellent skills in riding, shooting and footwork, and be "superior to the three armies", have excellent courage, take the lead in the battle, and have the spirit of overwhelming the powerful enemy, which can be called the model of the whole army.
It seems that Zhuge Liang's ability to put forward such comprehensive and specific normative requirements and to describe them in such detail is the summary and distillation of his years of military practice experience. These standards are necessary and appropriate as the criteria for selecting generals and the norms for their self-cultivation. According to these nine standards, the generals are required to have both moral integrity and ability to create excellent generals.
Extension example: Qi Huangyang recommends virtuous and selfless
Duke Jin Ping asked Qi Huangyang, "Nanyang is short of a county magistrate. Who do you think is the right one?" Qi Huangyang said, "Xie Hu is the most suitable one." Duke Jin Ping was surprised, "Xie Hu is not your enemy. Why do you recommend him to be an official?" Qi Huangyang replied, "You only asked me who can be a county magistrate, but did not ask me who is the enemy." So Xie Hu was sent to be the county magistrate of Nanyang. He did some good deeds in Nanyang and was praised by the people.
Another day, the Duke of Jin Ping asked Qi Huangyang, "There is no judge in the court. Who do you think is the right one?" Qi Huangyang said, "Qi Wu is the right one." The Duke of Jin Ping was surprised again: "Is Qi Wu not your son? Are you not afraid of others saying that you are going through the back door for your son?" Qi Huangyang replied, "You asked who can be a judge, and did not ask Qi Wu whether he is my son." Qi Wu became a judge, and he was able to enforce the law impartially, which was praised by people.
These two things were later spread, and people who knew them said, "Qi Huangyang is really good. He can recommend anyone who is virtuous and talented, whether he is his enemy or his son. This is the true selflessness!"
Nanwu Master Sakyamuni Buddha. Namo Amitabha. There is no Oriental Glazed Medicine Master Buddha in the south.
Nanwu Guanyin Bodhisattva. Nanwudi Tibetan King Bodhisattva. Nanwukong hides Bodhisattva.
Blessed life is limitless. Yuanshi Tianzun. Lingbao senior. The moral supremacy.
Taiyi saved the bitter god. Confucius, the supreme teacher of Dacheng. Jesus Christ. Mohammed.
All Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of the three generations in ten directions.
All immortals in the three realms and ten directions.
All sages at all times and in all countries.
Don't do any evil, and do all good. Persistence and responsiveness.
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
Introduction to Zhuge Changqing: Zhuge Changqing, the inheritor and promoter of traditional Chinese culture, is willing to "learn from sages, promote virtue, revitalize China and benefit the world" together with people with the same ideals in the world.
(Zhuge Changqing: email@example.com ）
Zhuge Changqing mailbox：
Zhuge Changqing's Chinese Dream
Learn from sages and carry forward virtue
Revitalizing China for the benefit of the world
Zhuge Changqing mailbox：
Selected Articles in Previous Periods
Click the article title to view
1The wisdom of traditional Chinese culture changes the destiny: filial piety to parents+five in one+self-improvement
2Zhuge Changqing's Three Golden Keys to Changing Destiny
3Zhuge Changqing's Greeting Ritual (15 Steps Concise Version)
3 诸葛长青施食仪轨 （十五步简洁版）
4How to repent: the ritual of repentance and the method of repentance (full version)
5How to read the Dizang Sutra: Methods for reciting Dizang Sutra (complete version)
6How to release? The ritual of releasing life
7Zhuge Changqing's Repentance Culture: A Case Study of Repentance Methods for Changing Destiny
8Free Life Culture: Free Life Culture in Ancient China
9Shocking photo of feeding: Buddha, Bodhisattva and Dharma Protector come to the scene
10Feeding Rite Return: the return is changed to simple return