Top ten private entrepreneurs in old China
[Archives of Chinese businessmen]
Since the Ming and Qing dynasties, the policy of restraining commerce of the Chinese imperial court has slowed down. In the narrow space, private commerce has grown like weeds. For hundreds of years, these businessmen who are good at business have been expanding their industries and have won a living space for China's private enterprises by virtue of their wealth. As time passed, their figures gradually disappeared in the misty rain of history. However, their entrepreneurial stories, business strategies and ups and downs have been circulating in the market and become a vivid record in the history of Chinese business. Looking back at their receding figure and chewing on their memorable stories is also an experience for today's private entrepreneurs.
Growing up in the Westernization Movement
After the Second Opium War, the Westernization Movement rose. The Westernization Movement put forward the idea of "seeking wealth" and emphasized the establishment of modern private enterprises, which resulted in the birth of a number of commercial modern enterprises in China.
Sheng Xuanhuai: a prominent entrepreneur in the late Qing Dynasty
Sheng Xuanhuai (1844-1918), named Xingsun and Yuzhai, was born in Wujin, Jiangsu Province, a major figure of the Huai Westernization School, and a celebrity under Li Hongzhang. He made his fortune through the Westernization Movement and was the most capable entrepreneur in the late Qing Dynasty. He founded many modern civil industries and commercial enterprises in China.
By the end of the Qing Dynasty, he had mastered the power of shipping, railway, telegraph, iron smelting, mining, textile and finance in the country. Sheng's greatest contribution to the development of China's private economy was to introduce the concept of share capital into the operation of the steamboat investment promotion bureau, so that the commercial shares, which were different from the temple shares (the common fund-raising method in the society at that time), were actively traded, and promoted the formation and development of China's national capitalism.
2. Hu Xueyan: second-grade Hongding businessman
Hu Xueyan (1823-1885), Mingyong, Xueyan, a native of Jixi, Anhui Province, a great capitalist in the late Qing Dynasty, a famous "Red Top Merchant" in modern China, and Zuo Zongtang, a powerful figure of the Westernization Movement.
In 1866, Hu assisted Zuo Zongtang in establishing the Fuzhou Shipping Bureau, and also handled the procurement and transportation affairs for Zuo Zongtang, raised military pay and ordered arms, and borrowed more than 12.5 million liang of domestic and foreign debt. Relying on the power of the Hunan army, he set up Fukang bank in various provinces and Qingyu Tang pharmacy in Hangzhou, winning the reputation of "Tongrentang in the north and Qingyu Tang in the south". In its heyday, it had 10000 mu of land and more than 20 million liang of assets (silver), and its business fields were as wide as banking, banking, pawnshops, drug stores and silk industry.
3 Zhang Jian: from champion to industrialist
Zhang Jian, (1853-1926) Ji Zhi, Si An, born in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, was promoted by Zhang Zhidong of the Westernization Movement to set up enterprises such as Tongzhou Dasheng Cotton Mill, and became a famous "number one industrialist". In his life, he has founded more than 20 enterprises, including Dasheng Cotton Mill and Tonghai Reclamation and Animal Husbandry Company. Zhang claimed that the secret of his success was: "It is nothing more than always relying on the heart of success and always making the plan of defeat."
Family Enterprises and Modern Entrepreneurs
From the Ming and Qing Dynasties to the Republic of China, family enterprises accounted for a large proportion of private enterprises. Fame of family enterprises is always associated with famous family members.
4 Jane's brothers: founder of national tobacco industry
The Jane brothers are from Nanhai, Guangdong Province. Jane Zhaonan was born in 1870, and Jane Yujie was born in 1875. In 1905, Jane Brothers founded the "Nanyang Tobacco Company" in Hong Kong to produce two brands of cigarettes, "Double Happiness" and "Pegasus". This is the first machine-made cigarette factory exclusively established by Chinese national capitalists, named "Nanyang Tobacco Company". In 1909, Jane Brothers reorganized the company into "Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company". Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company attaches great importance to technology and product quality. Cigarettes have good taste and taste and are cheap; At the same time, he put forward the patriotic slogan "Chinese people please smoke Chinese cigarettes", which was accepted by the majority of overseas compatriots.
5 Rong Brothers: the forerunner of scale operation
The Rong brothers are from Rongcang, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Rong Zongjing, also known as Zongjin, was born in 1873. Rong Desheng, also known as Zongquan, also known as Lenong, was born in 1875 and is the father of former Vice President Rong Yiren.
Rong brothers have successively established three enterprise systems and affiliated enterprises, namely Maoxin Flour Company, Fuxin Flour Company and Shenxin Textile Company, and become the largest enterprise group among China's national industrial enterprises. Rong Desheng believes that the most important thing to run an enterprise is "spirit". "It is not based on substantial capital, but on substantial spirit. Spirit is the foundation of business."
6. Huashi family: the richest man in Southwest likes to do good
At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, there was a Huashi family in Guizhou, which was famous for its rich money. It was called "Huawan" at that time. According to some statistics, the total amount of money invested by the Chinese family in running factories, donating silver for relief, donating money to help students, helping to feed, and being demanded and borrowed by the government and the army at that time exceeded 23 million liang, equivalent to more than 100 million yuan now, which can be called the richest national industrial and commercial person in Guizhou Province at that time. The development of Huajia enterprises is mainly based on the operation of Hualianhui, Huazhihong and Huawenqu's ancestors and grandchildren. Huajia started with the salt industry and accumulated millions of capital. At the time of the rise of the Westernization Movement, the Chinese family introduced large machines powered by steam to establish Wentong Bookstore (later became one of the seven major bookstores in the country), which is the symbol of modern industry in Guizhou.
In addition to the salt industry, Huajia has also opened a liquor store, establishing Kweichow Moutai as a world famous liquor.
"China's Morgan" and "China's Business Father"
The most prosperous city in old China was Shanghai, where modern private entrepreneurs were born. On Nanjing Road, Ma Yingbiao and Chen Guangfu became the king of money and department stores.
Chen Guangfu: The King of Money in Old China
Chen Guangfu (1881-1976), formerly known as Huide, was born in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in the first year of Xuantong in the Qing Dynasty (1909) with a bachelor's degree in business. After the 1911 Revolution, he became the general manager of the Bank of Jiangsu Province. It is known as "the most successful banker in old China" by later generations, and "China's Morgan" by foreigners.
In more than 20 years, Chen Guangfu developed a "small bank" with less than 100000 yuan in capital into the largest private bank in old China. This achievement is closely related to his introduction of management methods of modern banks in Europe and the United States. According to the service spirit of Bank of America, Chen put forward the slogans of "customers are always right" and "customers are parents of clothing and food", and paid attention to the service attitude of employees.
8 Ma Yingbiao: Pioneer of National Department Store Industry
Ma Yingbiao, born in 1864 in Xiangshan (now Zhongshan) County, Guangdong Province. In 1899, the first Chinese-funded department store in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Xianshi Company, was founded. It is one of the earliest joint-stock companies in China, and also the first modern department store founded by Chinese businessmen. Ma boldly introduced the selling method of foreign department stores with clear and real prices, and advocated the "no two price" system, which ran counter to the Chinese tradition of "asking for prices everywhere and paying back money on the spot", causing a huge response in the business community. Ma Yingbiao has changed China's traditional business habits, pioneered the trend, and opened a new page in China's department store industry: no price difference, first use of saleswomen. For this reason, Ma is known as the "father of business in Hong Kong" and even "father of business in China". [Zeng Dongmei]
Two Consequences of Civil and Commercial Sponsorship of the Imperial Court
In the Ming Dynasty, the first rich man Shen Wansan came out of Zhouzhuang. He was rich enough to help the emperor build half of the capital wall. Hundreds of years later, a "king of money", Wang Chi, was born in Shen Wansan's exile. The "king of money" also gave a lot of silver to the court and was also known as the "treasury".
Shen Wansan: the richest man in the Ming Dynasty
Shen Wansan, a famous rich man with the name Zhongrong, was born in Zhouzhuang, Jiangsu Province, and ranked third. The Wu people called Shen Wansan. Wansan is the nickname of the rich man. Shen was called the richest man in the Ming Dynasty. The most commonly used story to describe Shen Wansan's "wealth can rival the country" is to "build a city in half" with Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang. When building the southern capital, Shen Wansan not only completed the project three days earlier than Zhu Yuanzhang, but also asked to reward the three armies. This arrogance caused Zhu Yuanzhang's jealousy, calling it "the people are rich and the country is the same." Zhu imposed heavy taxes on him, framed his conspiracy, exiled Shen to Yunnan, and confiscated his family property.
Wang Chi: "The Treasury of the Qing Dynasty"
Wang Chi (1836-1903), who was born in Hongxi, Mile County, Yunnan Province, with the name of Xingzhai, is known as the only person who has reached the highest level of business in Yunnan history. He successively established his own ticket bank (bank) in the years of Tongzhi and Guangxu: Tongqingfeng and Tianshunxiang. At that time, people said there was "Jinchangyuan" in the north and "Tianshunxiang" in the south. They believed that Wang Chi's bank could compete with Shanxi's bank. He supported Cixi when he fled to the west, advanced the military pay of the imperial court, and donated millions of taels of silver for disaster relief. Li Hongzhang called it "like the treasury of the Qing court". In order to reward Wang Chi for his righteous deeds, the Qing government has successively awarded him the title of the fourth grade Taoist priest, the second grade of honor and honor, the second grade of honor and honor, and the title of "three generations and one grade". Wang has become the only red-crowned merchant in China's feudal society. [Zeng Dongmei]
(This article is an original article by Zhuge Changqing, and the pictures are selected from the Internet. Welcome to forward it, and please indicate the source for forwarding)
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